This paper seeks to give an analysis on the diagnosis and treatment for children, who have ADHD. The scenario chosen is of a young girl who was diagnosed when she was in a school setting. Attention Deficit Disorder occurs mostly in childhood, before it progresses to adulthood. This means that those diagnosed with ADHD find it hard to control their symptoms and behavior. Currently in the United States, 5% of the children suffer from this disorder. This figure is two million children and it is increasing drastically. There are many symptoms, which are associated with ADHD, and they include; not finishing assigned tasks, constantly fidgeting, not paying attention, among others (Southall, 2007). According to various doctors, different forms of ADHD exist and in turn, the medication as well as the diagnoses, is quite different. Often, there are other conditions, which have the same symptoms as that of ADHD, thus making it difficult at times to diagnose it. It is extremely essential that in order to diagnose someone with ADHD, their brains should be scanned .The latter is according to Daniel Amen a psychiatrist. Different subtypes of ADHD exist and they are used in treatment as well as the diagnosis of ADHD in children.
The three subtypes of ADHD include, the predominately Inattentive, combined and pre dominantly impulsive hyperactive sub types. This means that six types of ADHD exist and they include; the Inattentive, classic, limbic, temporal, over focused and the ring of fire type of ADHD. In order for a child to be diagnosed with ADHD they must experience one of the symptoms in the different existing ADHD (Southall, 2007).
Key Words: ADHD, Treatment, Symptoms, Statistics, Medication, Treatment.
Analysis of issues concerning ADHD In children in the United States
It has been found out through research that the percentage of children, who have ADHD, is between three to seven. This information is available in the Mental Disorders Statistics Manual, and it is confirmed by the American Psychological Association. The figure that exists will increase in the future, due to various factors. In the years 2003 to 2007, parents reported that the children who have ADHD and the figure were 22% higher than in the years before. This means that in the year 2007, children as much as 5.4 million were found to have ADHD. According to research, as compared to girls, boys have higher rates of having ADHD. Young children as opposed to teenagers, have lower rates of ADHD. The information was retrieved from parents, who had children that were multiracial, and also those who used Medicaid (Data %Statistics, 2011).
Most of those who have ADHD are being treated, and they are those between the ages of four to seventeen years. This means that as much as 2.7 million of them are taking medication to control their condition. During treatment, factors such as sex and age play a vital role in determining the treatment received. For example, as compared to girls, boys take medication more often. Also, those above the age of 11 are the ones who take their medication often. Children who have ADHD experience problems when they try to socialize with their peers. It is often difficult for them to form friendships, which is ten times higher, than those who do not have the disorder. In terms of injury, healthy children have a 2.5% fatal injury percentage, as compared to 4.5% of those who have ADHD (Data %Statistics, 2011). This means that they incur high costs, as most times they are in hospital seeking treatment for their injuries. In the year 2005, as much as 52 billion dollars was spent on treatment of ADHD. This means that individuals with ADHD spent approximately 17, 458 dollars each on treatment. In the year 2006, care visits by ambulances were seven million. As a result of ADHD, most people including family, patients as well as care givers, suffer great economic loses. Thus, an affordable means of treating this illness needs to be found out soon.
The ADHD, which is found in children, occurs often, and more than six symptoms have to be diagnosed. This should be for a period of six months and should be in different settings on a basis, which is regular. Many tests have to be done before they child is found to have ADHD. There are standards guidelines, which have to be followed, in order for ADHD to be diagnosed. The different sources where information can be obtained for diagnosis are from parents, caregivers and school. The behavior of the child is analyzed as compared to that of the age mates (Fowler, 2011).
There are many specific ways through, which ADHD signs are shown in children. This may take the form of impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention. Other symptoms are in the form of Fidgeting, squirming, excessively talking, not listening, always in motion, which is constant, cannot play quietly, as well as tasks not being finished, among others. It is vital to ensure that these behaviors occur as a result of ADHD and not any other disorder. There are various causes of ADHD, which exist such as seizures that are undetected and brain functions mental disorders. Also, traumatic experiences such as death in the family, moving to new locations and also, divorce are known to cause ADHD (Rader, et al. 2009).
In any plan for treatment, it is essential that the family and the child are well educated. This can occur through the form of drug treatment, psychological intervention and programs for special education. The provider of health care should be able to provide the available best options for treatment. Research has found out that medical treatment alone is not as superior to behavioral therapy and medication combined together (Hanna, 2006). It should be known that depression, anxiety, impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention, cannot be treated, but only managed. Through treatment and medication, the children’s social skills are improved.
Psychostimulants are drugs used in the treatment of ADHD and should be used especially during childhood. Examples of such drugs include; Adderall, Concerta and Ritalin. They are beneficial in making sure that children with ADHD are not distracted easily as well as making them become focused. It has been proven that these drugs are 80% effective in treating ADHD. There is another treatment known as medication, which is non-stimulant. An example of the latter is a drug known as Strattera. Studies are being done concerning this drug to find out its advantages. However, children suffering from ADHD as much as 70% of them have benefited greatly from the drug. The symptoms have reduced drastically, and improvement witnessed in their lives (Nair, et al.2006).
There are various forms of ADHD drugs, which exist, for example there is long- acting, intermediate- acting and short-acting. In order to find the right and required schedule, dosage and medication, a physician takes a long time. There are side effects, which occur, as a result of taking ADHD drugs. The advantage is that the side effects are short lived and only occur during the early stages of treatment. In order to ensure that the child has interactions, which are successful, the environment, which they reside in, needs to be adjusted. This is what happens when they undergo behavioral treatment (Conrad, 2006). The adjustments are meant to encourage routines and create structure for the child. The child is made aware of the expectations needed in their life. Training of social skills is also beneficial. This is because their social relationships are maintained and developed and also their behaviors. Training of parenting and support groups should occur. Support and education play an essential role in ensuring that children who have ADHD are treated well.
In conclusion, various children are treated in different ways. This is because the children experience side effects, which are different. It is essential that behavioral therapy and medication are used together to obtain excellent results. Consideration should be given to children based on their personal history as well as needs. The physician should provide information, which will work towards the best treatment of the child suffering from ADHD. The parents should know that their children are capable of living meaningful lives by receiving proper treatment. Thus indeed it is true that there is truth in Lot to Life.
Conrad, Peter. (2006). Identifying Hyperactive Children. New York: Ashgate.
Data %Statistics. (2011). Attention –Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html.
Fowler, Mary. (2011). ADHD: School Issues and Interventions. Family Education. Retrieved from http://school.familyeducation.com/add-and-adhd/learning-disabilities/57658.html.
Hanna, Mohab. (2006) Making the Connection: A Parent’s Guide to Medication in ADHD, Washington D.C.: Ladner-Drysdale.
Nair, J. et al. (2006). “Clinical review: evidence-based diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in children”. Mo Med 103, 6, 617–21.
Rader, R. et al (2009). “Current strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder”. American Family Physician 79, 8,657–65.
Southall, Angela (2007). The Other Side of ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Exposed and Explained. Radcliffe Publishing Ltd.
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