Ascension of Turkey into the European Union

Europe From 1948 to 2004

The ascension of Turkey into the European Union has been one of the most historically difficult of all expansion moves. Several member states with limited or strained relations with Turkey, (mainly France and Greece) opposed the absorption of Turkey into the EU. Their cited reasons for opposition included their own political agendas as well as the fact that Turkey was slow in meeting the Copenhagen criteria, set up early in the process as essential to membership. (Bache & George, 2006, p. 204) the Copenhagen criteria as detailed by the EU organization in 1993 were as follows; political criteria, applicant must have stable institutions, guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and the protection of minorities. Economic criterion the applicant must have a functioning market economy, and the capacity to cope with the competitive market of the single EU, lastly the applicant must be able to take on the obligation of membership including its aims of political, economic and monetary union. (Bache & George, 2006, pp. 552-553) (Peterson & Shackleton, 2006, p. 35) (Woyke, 2002, p. 27) Turkey, with its historical aggression and challenging human rights record became the most controversial applicant members in the history of the EU. Expansion with Turkey as a member state in discussion, in fact occurred only as a result of the relaxation of independent demands of the EU for membership. The EU was in fact forced to some degree to negotiate membership with Turkey as a result of doing so with a few other nations, who where less controversial. (Bache & George, 2006, p. 204)

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Ascension of Turkey into the European Union
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

Turkey, was clearly not the only applicant that had difficulty in some of these areas and yet, Turkey became the most controversial of applicants through its historical attempts at membership. From and EU perspective the goal was reformation in member states, along the lines of democracy and economy and Turkey, with its historical internal and external humanitarian and economic strife was not a favorite acquisition on many notes.

Such skepticism is warranted by long-standing resistance within the European Union to a Turkish member state. Points of contention include Turkey’s geographic boundaries, economic instability, cultural and religious differences with the rest of Europe, questionable human rights record, and high population growth (by approximately 2015 Turkey, if made an EU member, would be the largest EU state). The overwhelming majority of European citizens oppose membership, according to a European Commission poll two years ago, which showed that only 35% of Europeans support Turkey’s bid. (Clarke, 2006, p. 13)

On economic dealings alone the EU had had its share of run ins with Turkey, and often suspected unfair dealings. (Peterson & Bomberg, 1999, pp. 110-111) Turkey had in fact been passed up on several occasions and a clear outline of demands for Turkey were not handed down by the EU until 1999 (Bache & George, 2006, p.192). Membership was not taken seriously by the EU until relations with Greece and France were repaired and Turkey had a complete regime change in 2002, and began to accept more rapid democratic and economic changes that aligned her with EU politics. (Nugent, 2003, p.30, 60) Turkey, proved a difficult acquisition, despite the fact that from an EU perspective her membership would build a political and economic bridge between Europe and the Middle East, Asia and figuratively and practically a communication between the West and Islam a goal that had been hard pressed for many years. (Nugent, 2003, p.68) (Peterson & Bomberg, 1999, pp. 237, 239) Clarke, argues that the contention over Turkey’s membership has been so longstanding that some member nations and others seem to forget that the strategic advantage of Turkey’s membership is significant for the EU and the west in general.

A there are remarkable strategic benefits to including Turkey in the European coalition, especially in light of current events. Turkey shares its borders with Syria, Iraq, and Iran — all volatile nations that have at best tenuous relations with the West. Including Turkey in the European Union would provide a stronger and more legitimate Western presence in the region and could curb future terrorist activity. The alignment would also boast symbolic significance. Following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, Turkish membership would show the West’s support for moderate, democratic Islamic states. Additionally, with U.S.-Turkish relations tense due to the U.S. presence in Iraq, Europe needs to ensure it does not alienate one of the West’s greatest allies in the Middle East by refusing to grant it membership. The stakes for the future of Western relations with the Middle East are nothing short of enormous. (Clarke, 2006, p. 13)

More recently opposition from Austria has been the biggest hurdle for Turkey to achieve full membership, a state it is still seeking. According to many, who appose Turkey’s acceptance as a member of the EU the differences between Turkey and the other member states are to vast a gulf to cross. Turkey remains an aggressive member of its society, according to some and has to many cultural conflicts to note.

The most outspoken critic on a state level, and the only country in the European Union to take a firm stance against membership, is Austria, which has long advocated a “privileged partnership” status for Turkey rather than full membership. It was Austria’s continuing opposition that seemed likely to stall the opening of accession talks past the scheduled date, Austria recently took over control of the EU presidency from Great Britain and might use the office to influence the outcome of the talks. Several other key voices in the European community oppose membership. French Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy, a likely candidate for the French presidency in 2007, has opposed a Turkish member state. So has Angela Merkel, who took over as German chancellor in November 2005 and believes that “Turkey does not fit into the EU because it is culturally different.” With current and future leaders of Europe standing in stark opposition to the inclusion of Turkey in the European Union, it seems unlikely that the accession talks will proceed either smoothly or quickly. (Clarke, 2006, p. 13)

Even in Turkey, many EU members contend there is not full, widespread acceptance of the idea that Turkey should be a an EU member. The goal of democracy, alone is debilitating to the nation, as Democracy is a western ideal that goes against thousands of years of Islamic governmental rule.

The issue of Turkey’s EU membership is a contentious one within Turkey itself, albeit not to the degree it is in other European countries. While Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan continues to work toward the ultimate goal of EU membership, conflict between various feuding parties has hindered his efforts. (Clarke, 2006, p. 13)

The current prime minister may see EU membership as essential to progress, in an economic sense, but the nation itself has misgivings about Turkey being remade into a European state through membership.

Despite misgivings, both external and internal the degree to which the EU will benefit from acceptance of Turkey as a member state is at the least controversial. Some argue that no matter the benefit acceptance of terms is the only manner in which the EU will negotiate Turkey’s role. The Turkish prime minister seeks a moderate Islamic state that demonstrates significant support for the EU and any nation targeted by terrorists, and yet the nation itself may not be ready to celebrate the “victory” that would come from full membership in the EU. It remains to be seen if Turkey, despite modern efforts is ready to accept all the terms and conditions of membership, despite her strong membership with NATO, an association many EU nations have with her. (Woyke, 2002, p. 27)

Woyke in fact argues that the watering down of the EU by further expansion is detrimental, as the EU is currently strong economically and socially and adding additional member states will create a diversity that could be fundamentally destructive. (Woyke, 2002, p. 27) From a Turkish perspective membership would allow Turkey fundamentally stronger trade rights and privileges and waiting much longer could allow her to slip into a non-competitive role in the region. The EU is so strong that the development of the region depends on support from ember states. Isolationist arguments on the part of the EU would seem illogical given the nature of the union as well as the diplomatic manner in which it has accepted members and formed cohesive networks. Turkey will likely be accepted into the union at some point, in the near future, and yet it may take a monumental fight for it to occur. The strategic advantages will have to be weighed against monumental opposition to creating an EU that is to vast and diverse to control.


Clarke, K. (2006). Crossing over? Turkey and the European Union. Harvard International Review, 27(4), 13.

Bache I. And George S., (2006), Politics in the European Union (2nd ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press

Nugent N., (2003) (5th ed.), the Government and Politics of the European Union, Houndmils, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan

Peterson J., (1999), Decision-Making in the European Union, London: The MacMillan Press.

Peterson J. And Schackleton M., (2002) (Eds.), the Institutions of the European Union, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Woyke, W. (2002). European Union Enlargement – Consequences and Problems. German Policy Studies, 2(1), 27.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essay GET A PERFECT SCORE!!! smile and order essay Buy Custom Essay

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.
  +1 718 717 2861           + 44 161 818 7126           [email protected]
  +1 718 717 2861         [email protected]