Attacking, overpowering and eliminating cannibals

Robinson Crusoe has a fear of being eaten. For him cannibalism is the farthest thing from European civilization. His fear of being eaten develops at a young age when he decides to embark on sea adventures and is dissuaded by family and friends. However his lust to gain more adventure is a reflection of his acute luster to acquire which involves appropriation, exploitation and accumulation. This appropriation and acquiring often also involves compete domination and overpowering of humans. While Crusoe justifies his acquiring and appropriation to his distressed state from being a cast away, this also instills the fear of being eaten. These fears in Crusoe returns back to him when he encounters cannibals and witnesses the cultures and ways of cannibalism.

This fear of being eaten also naturally creates a biological revulsion to cannibalism which manifests in the Crusoe imagining attacking, overpowering and eliminating the cannibals. However things and outlook takes a change when he witnesses a group of European sailors executing prisoners in a manner and at the same spot as the cannibals killed their victims. In the later part of the story Crusoe even justifies the cannibalism act to an extent when he says that the cannibals cannot technically called murders as they kill people to fulfill their need for food — their need to appropriate and acquire. This he finds similarity with his feelings and somewhat begins to sympathize with the cannibals.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Attacking, overpowering and eliminating cannibals
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

This experience of Crusoe can also be applied to the modern society where acquiring is an accepted trend and sometimes even humans are not spared.

Cannibalism was one of the major fears or anxieties of Robinson Crusoe.

“I expected every wave would have swallowed us up” — this was the earliest indications that Crusoe was fearful of cannibalism and Crusoe revealed this while he recounted his first sea storm. This incident could have been written off as a mere metaphor but for the sequence of events that deals closely with cannibals and Crusoe’s dread of them in the latter part of the novel.

The eating spree and the fear of cannibalism and animals eating each other does not end with the completion of the desert island and cannibal section of the novel as the horror of one creature devouring another was repeated at least twice — when a horse is eaten by wolves and when a man is eaten by wolves (Defoe and Duvoisin).

But a hero being afraid of being eaten signifies a deep thought within the mind of the author and is somewhat uncommon of the author to project a hero who is fearful (Nishimura and Isoda).

This fear of cannibalism of Crusoe as depicted and imagined by the author, helps he author to enhance the problems that were faced by Crusoe as an important plot of the adventure story as the fear can be considered a possibility of the human condition. Moreover, the cannibals and cannibalism in the novel can serve a metaphorical function (Guest).

The fear and dread of cannibalism, the customs associated with cannibalism and the fear of being eaten up by a stronger entity is a form of anxiety that is common for all modes of power and accumulation. The strong and desire that is full of guilt that tends to accumulate and consume acquisitions is the primary cause of the anxiety apart from the dangers that are associated with being dispossessed, overpowered or devoured by a stronger entity. This is an anxiety that is found all around us in our lives and society.

Apart from wealth or power, acquisition in some situations also includes people. Crusoe’s actions in the novel are driven by an impetus that is derived from such a desire. However this very desire to acquire also creates a conflict within Crusoe during the course of the novel (Defoe and Duvoisin). The early indications of this ambivalence in Crusoe lies in his father’s attitude and has been indicated clearly in the early part of the novel where the father talks about the longing for enterprising adventure of Crusoe. While the education that had been imparted by Crusoe’s father to his son had in fact designed Crusoe for the law but in Crusoe’s words, “I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea, and my inclination to this led me so strongly against the will.” But the inclination was resisted by the continuous and strong commands of Crusoe’s father and the entreaties and persuasions of his mother and other friends. Crusoe writes that their commands and persuasions were as if that a tendency of Crusoe to go for sea adventure would directly affect his life and lead him to a life of misery which was sure to befall upon him (Mackintosh).

Remembering his father’s commands and mother’s persuasions, Crusoe recalls how they had described his going to the sea as being means of the people with desperate fortunes or those who aspire for a superior fortune. They said that only those who wanted to rise by enterprise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common road went abroad upon adventures. And Crusoe was told that these things were either too far above him or too far below his rightful dignity as he was in the middle state or better described as the upper level of a low life. His father believed that the upper lower level of life was the best state in the world and most suited to human happiness which the father had found by personal experience.

While these warnings and persuasions were intended to dissuade Crusoe, these in fact had led Robinson Crusoe to embark on a path that would help him satisfy his appetite for accumulation which he was forbidden to acknowledge or to express and which was condemned by his father.

In course of the development of the plot, Crusoe himself becomes a victim of its expression. This is so because the desire to appropriate acquiring can only express itself by projection onto others. This desire often gets back at the individual and returns as a threat of being captured and devoured which was the reason behind the fear of cannibalism.

Crusoe’s misfortune of being cast away on a desert island and constantly being in danger of being eaten by cannibals helps Crusoe to become aware of his overpowering desire for a life of “enterprise” in order to do away with his cast away condition and thus he needed to accumulate and consume. Robinson Crusoe’s life of appropriation, exploitation and accumulation is justified and underpinned by the fear of being eaten coupled with a biological revulsion to cannibalism. Realizing a myth of the present age, Crusoe, through his endeavor to become an appropriator and accumulator, he also becomes an economic Everyman. Justified by the conditions for survival imposed by the plot, Crusoe’s appropriation or expropriation is a domestic form of devouring-“enterprize.”

This is a trait that was warranted by his European political economy but was somewhat tamed by Christianity. The civilizing of a fundamental characteristic in a human being can be metaphorically witnessed when Crusoe manages to wean Friday away from human flesh towards animal flesh. According to Robinson Crusoe, rules are more effective than transcendence and displacement is the way to deal with the anti-social.

The primitive and fundamental appropriation, in the form of the cannibals, haunts Crusoe while he acts as an appropriator. This is signified by his aggressive conquest and incorporation that is expressed in his eating.

Even as he appropriates and incorporates more of the external world, Crusoe, in order to stand without guilt in relation to his father, must actively stand for the annihilation of that primitive style. This points to the fierce practice of cannibalism which is expressed in his words – “The cannibals capture and devour, not I.”

However in the case of Crusoe, the requirements to project the fundamental aggressive appropriation is not limited to the personal aspect but extends to the cultural aspect as well.

An even-handed condemnation of savages and Europeans is the primary trend of the troy during the first part of the novel. With several observations on the similarity of some Christians to the cannibals, in the initial parts of the novel, Crusoe makes a savagery similar to that of the cannibals adhere to the Europeans. For example, the arrivals of the Europeans with the prisoners on the island one fine day has been equated by Crusoe in a way that resembled the past landing of the cannibals with the prisoners whom the cannibals were about to eat.

This was best portrayed by Friday, who himself had been a cannibal once and also almost became a victim of cannibalism, when he called out to Crusoe saying that the English men were also in the habit of the eating prisoners as the savage men or the cannibals did. However Crusoe was confident that the Englishmen would murder the prisoners but would surely not eat them.

This incident ratifies Crusoe’s fear and apprehension about cannibalism as well as his deep belief in the culturally superior Europeans (Nishimura and Isoda). This has led to Crusoe to distinguish between the two killings — while the cannibals killed the prisoners to eat, the Englishmen simply killed them and would not eat them. A similar irony in the mind of Crusoe regarding cannibalism can be seen when he gives an account of a battle with the cannibals and with the counting of dead bodies. The savage actions of the Europeans were therefore projected onto the cannibals.

The plot that the novel is based upon successfully expresses Crusoe’s attempts to both express figuratively and to deny Crusoe’s own, and his culture’s desire for the power of appropriation and incorporation through the encounters of Crusoe and the cannibals.

A mode of being is emphasized in two significant psychological/spiritual episodes of Robinson Crusoe by the force of eating which is symbolic. The yearly fast is marked upon Crusoe’s arrival at the island and symbolizes his despair and helplessness. The second episode is the internal conflicts of Crusoe about his fear of cannibalism and his distaste to the way of life and is emphasized by the numerous encounters with the cannibals. Crusoe’s reaction to cannibalism was so strong that he often finds himself indulging in orgies where he imagines attacking the cannibals and completely overpowering them and finally annihilating them completely. However towards the end o the novel, Crusoe somewhat justifies the act of the cannibals and detracts from giving shape to his imagination of attacking them when he becomes self-aware that the cannibals were not actually murders in the actual sense of the word but were killing people to satisfy their need for food (Novak).

At this stage Crusoe even decides to avoid encountering the cannibals and even trying to find out if they were around. But he fails in the attempts and consequently his fears about being eaten and his strong reaction to cannibalism is activated with each subsequent encounter of the cannibals.

References

Defoe, Daniel, and Roger Duvoisin. The Life And Adventures Of Robinson Crusoe. Cleveland: World Pub. Co, 1946. Print.

Guest, Kristen. Eating Their Words. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2001. Print.

Mackintosh, Alex. ‘Crusoe’s Abattoir: Cannibalism And Animal Slaughter In Robinson Crusoe’. Critical Quarterly 53.3 (2011): 24-43. Web.

Nishimura, Kinya, and Yutaka Isoda. ‘Erratum To “Evolution Of Cannibalism: Referring To Costs Of Cannibalism.” Journal of Theoretical Biology 228.2 (2004): 291. Web.

Novak, Maximillian E. Transformations, Ideology, And The Real In Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe And Other Narratives. Print.


Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects

Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.

Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!

Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.

Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.

Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.

Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.

Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!

Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.

Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essay GET A PERFECT SCORE!!! smile and order essay Buy Custom Essay


Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
1
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.
  +1 718 717 2861           + 44 161 818 7126           [email protected]
  +1 718 717 2861         [email protected]