Brain-Based Learning Theory Term Paper 17 pages

Brain-Based Learning Theory

Learning does not only bring enlightenment to the weary souls but it also helps us learn, grow and be what we are potentially able to become. Therefore education plays a vital role in inculcating a sense of responsibility in children and to assist them in learning other highly important social skills. Thus through adequate instructional framework and effective and logical application of the learning theories, both educators and learners can considerably reap benefits of teaching and learning respectively. The purpose of this analytical research paper is to apply brain base learning theory in the most effective manner to the instructional design. The passages below will aim at the accomplishment of six distinct goals. We begin with the comprehension of the theory and principles of instructional design thereby defining it in detail.

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GOAL I: Understand the Theoretical Foundations and Principles of Instructional Design

The term instructional design is not easy to define or explain for it encompasses a rich array of information and learning aspects. As Applied Research laboratory of Penn State University defines instructional design as a process, as a discipline as well as a science and a reality (Berger & Kam, 1996). However, all the definitions display the significance of instructional design and inform the readers a great deal about its principles and the essential theory. On a bigger note, instructional design is an organized and methodological procedure for transmuting assorted rules and regulations of learning directions into specific plans for instructional materials and learning (Smith & Ragan, 1993).

Researchers define instructional design as a process and cover the following aspects of student learning that is heavily dependent on these instructional design models based on various learning theories: “Instructional Design is the systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction. It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. It includes development of instructional materials and activities; and tryout and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities” (Berger & Kam, 1996).

Berger & Kam (1996) observe instructional design as a discipline defining it in the following manner: “Instructional Design is that branch of knowledge concerned with research and theory about instructional strategies and the process for developing and implementing those strategies.” Furthermore, instructional design is also seen as a complete science “of creating detailed specifications for the development, implementation, evaluation, and maintenance of situations that facilitate the learning of both large and small units of subject matter at all levels of complexity” (Berger & Kam, 1996). In addition to the above, instructional design is also defined as reality when “a glimmer of an idea is developed to give the core of an instruction situation. By the time the entire process is done the designer looks back and she or he checks to see that all parts of the “science” have been taken into account. Then the entire process is written up as if it occurred in a systematic fashion” (Berger & Kam, 1996).

The above chain of definitions reveals the long history of and various philosophical trends pertaining to the systematic approach of instructional design towards learning.

On the same account our next goal is to trace the historical and philosophical trends of instructional design.

GOAL II: Trace the Historical and Philosophical Trends of Instructional Design

Instructional Systems Design has witnessed several changing trends in terms of history as well as philosophy. The history of instructional design begins its journey from the ancient times of geniuses like Aristotle, Socrates and Plato, valuable concepts and innovations by whom involving brain-based learning were further refined by St. Thomas Aquinas during the thirteenth century. This philosopher studied the comprehension of instructions and training “in terms of free will” (Leigh). However, there was a long chain of philosophers and scientists that further made these studies precocious and acceptable. John locks was one of them, who refined Aristotle’s innovative idea pertaining to a human being’s incipient “state of mental blankness by proposing that almost all reason and knowledge must be gained from experience” (Leigh). John Dewey in the late nineteenth century put forth various doctrines regarding the critical study of education thereby spreading the awareness that comprehension and learning are most effective when coupled with practical application “rather than rote regurgitation of facts” (Leigh).

However, the 1920’s witnessed the behaviorist approach gaining momentum. Thorndike developed “stimulus- response model of behavioral psychology” which Hull, another popular theorist broadened to an advanced model concentrating on the student’s “wants, attention and activities” (Leigh). The period between the 1920’s-1960’s saw a drastic technological advancement in the learning processes. Sidney Pressey was one of the pioneers to introduce motorized technology to the academic world (Leigh) that considerably contributed towards “the instructional media research & development movement of World War II” (Leigh). With World War II, United States became economically sound and researchers put their backbreaking efforts at play in order to extract the most priceless teaching strategies by learning and advancing the instructional systems design (Leigh). Thus 1950’s saw dramatic change in technological, philosophical and historical trends in the understanding and application of instructional design. Therefore, the rapid transformation from disorganized application to organized and detailed models of instructional design took place. In 1954, The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching by B.F. Skinner well blended the components of feedback, reinforcement, stimulus-response and operant conditioning (Leigh). In addition to the above, in 1956, Benjamin Bloom, proposed the “taxonomy of intellectual behaviors” thereby providing educators and researchers to disseminate the pearls of wisdom in effective and learner-friendly manner. For giant firms and work places, nevertheless, “Ludwig von Bertalanffy’s General Systems Theory of biological interactions to integrate the operations of a wide range of departments, such as training, intelligence and staffing” (Leigh) was combined with Bloom’s taxonomy. The “space race” initiated by the Soviet Union in 1957 brought further technological advancement and amendments in the instructional designs (Leigh) worldwide that gave birth to the theoretical models concentrating on the entire curriculum progress with initial focus rested on mathematics and science fields of instruction and learning. This paved way for various curriculum-based instructional design models based on brain-based learning theory in particular and other learning theories in general. Individually Robert Glaser was the first theorist to coin the term “instructional design” in 1962 and his work serves as the foundation for the Prescribed Instruction (IPI) approach in imparting education (Leigh). Moreover, Robert Gagne in the same year advocated Bloom’s taxonomy model by presenting his new design for instructing students and later expanded his own model incorporating up to “nine instructional events” (Leigh). Patrick Suppes’s computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in 1960’s assisted PLATO’s systems that originated in 1970’s (Leigh). The 1980’s as well as the 1990’s further witnessed changes and technological advancement in the methods of teaching and learning. Various organizational models of today are the by-products of the aforementioned instructional design models and the related learning theories.

In the next section of our research paper we will try to accomplish our third goal of comprehending the process of research to test and evaluate principles of instructional design.

GOAL III: Understand the Process of Research to Test and Evaluate Principles of Instructional Design

Adequate comprehension of the principles of instructional design assists all the teachers and the educators to help their students learn effectively in a better, more challenging learning environment. Though there are various instructional design theories and related models, brain-based learning theory considerably assists mentors to evaluate significant learning aspects of the various principles of instructional design. This is because, a theory offers “a general explanation for observations made over time” and it also “explains and predicts behavior” (Dorin, Demmin & Gabel, 1990). Thus, brain-based learning theory can be rationally applied to the instructional design. This learning theory helps the educators in creating creative, effective and highly challenging environments coupled with enriching experiences. Brain-based learning suggests that the structure as well as the function of the brain play a cardinal role in the learning process. It states that “As long as the brain is not prohibited from fulfilling its normal processes, learning will occur” (Brain-based learning, 1998- 2001). According to the brain-based learning theory, while building an instructional design educators, theorists and researchers must keep in mind the fundamental significance of The “immensely powerful processor” (Brain-based learning, 1998-2001) that processes the vital information, interprets data received by a learner and helps build concepts and perceptions of the students indulged in the learning process. Some of the key principles or components of brain-based learning theory help us understand the processing and significance of brain in the learning and instructing environments. Hence, the principles of brain-based learning theory can be applied to various aspects of instructional design in order to understand the process of instructional design evaluation. One of this theory’s principle states that “the brain is a parallel processor” (Brain-based learning, 1998-2001) thereby claiming that this intricate processor enables students or learners to complete various duties and perform actions simultaneously. For instance, a student’s brain extracts important information by observing various things at a time. For instance, the mentor’s attitude, facial expressions, body language, classroom environment, color of the textbooks, animations. Moreover, we as learners learn a great deal by constant processing of our brain while we smell, taste, move and see simultaneously. Therefore instructional design must be formulated keeping in mind the fact that though “every brain is unique” (Brain-based learning, 1998-2001) there are “six cognitive domains of learning” (Leigh) as proposed by Bloom’s taxonomy and nine instructional events put forth by Robert Gagne (Leigh). Bloom’s self-explanatory cognitive domains included knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation (Saettler, 1990). Moreover, the comprehensive categorized taxonomy of Gagne in 1962 as published in “Military Training and Principles of Learning” included different degrees of learning (Leigh) covering verbal information, intellectual skill, cognitive strategy and attitude and motor skill. These domains advocating the brain-based learning theory are in use by the instructional designers since ages.

Instructional designs can be evaluated using another pivotal principle on which rests the foundation of brain-based theory of learning that states “The search for meaning comes through patterning” (Brain-based learning, 1998-2001). On the same account, we can safely culminate that an instructional design must keep in mind the fact that the brain of a learner comprehends the gist of the learning material by seeking meaning through figuring out the patterns. These patterns offer context to the available information or relevant data that may be repudiated otherwise and may be considered senseless without the logical patterning as suggested by Coward (1990). Freeman (1995) advocates the similar line of reasoning by establishing a lucid connection between the relevance of the information and the clarity of patterns that helps learner to seek meaning. Relevant data makes pattern development easier for young students. Therefore, relevance helps children to learn faster and works two ways. Firstly it enables them to learn to view the pattern that helps them further in seeking the meaning. Secondly, it motivates them to relate their previous knowledge to their learning process at schools and other academic institutions. This is the reason why popular theorists and instructional designers like Jensen (1998) suggest various ways in which relevance must be enhanced in instructional design. Jensen (1998) suggests the creation of relevance in learning by connecting it with past experiences and previously learnt information and patterns can be quickly developed in young students with the help of universally accepted and understood concepts, symbols and beliefs. Environmental stimulation helps the brain in modifying its structure according to the environmental change (Diamond, 1988), learning process and type of usage (Healy, 1990). Thus researchers call the phenomena of change in the brain structure of a learner as “plasticity” (Diamond, 1988). With the addition in vivacity while learning and enriching experiences in the instructional environment, the learner’s brain is again plugged in and its working is fully charged thereby thickening the cortex of the student’s brain (Diamond and Hopson 1998). Challenging instructional environments can therefore be created through the common and regular practice of keeping all the learners involve in the activities of reading, writing, language building, enhancement of motor skills, sketching, drawing, painting. In addition to the above, a rich array of problem solving and decision-making situations can further help the student in learning quicker. Thus teachers are advised to compel their students to rack their brains by placing them in problem-solving and analytical situations thereby motivating them to fully utilize the intricate capacity of their stimulating, powerful processors. On a bigger note, teachers should promote discretion thinking, multiple replies that are possible in a given situation and creative insights. This can be done by incorporating frequent quizzes, multiple choice questions, questionnaires with more than one accurate answers, essay writing wherein children can describe their good and bad incidents, sweet and sour memories and experiences all along and conducting drawing competitions thereby assisting children in pattern making. With changing experiences and variety of activities at school and other educational sessions, the brain of learners change in its structure thereby making it unique from the other’s. With neural pathways, students learn to outstrip others in their thinking and creative skills, however where one skill can be mastered, there exist many areas and skills that need extreme attention. Moreover, according to the brain-based learning theory “emotions are critical to patterning” (Brain-based learning, 1998-2001) thereby maintaining that instructional design models must be built and planned while focusing on the emotions of the learners. This is because emotions help students in developing patterns and comprehend the given patterns and seek meaning out of them. Therefore, Freeman (1995) suggests that since emotions assist learners in making sound decisions based on moral and ethical as well as social values, teachers must not even try to separate the two- emotions and learning process. This information as proposed by the brain-based learning theory is highly important in assessing brain’s ability to learn at a rapid pace. Teachers must therefore instruct in such a way that emotions of the students do not run high or excessively low. However, positive feelings and emotions assist students in accomplishing their aims and implementing their plans (Freeman, 1995). Moreover, “Emotions drive attention, create meaning, and have their own memory pathways. Chemicals activated by emotions help us recall things better thereby affecting long-term memory. When emotions are engaged the brain learns fastest and easiest during the early school years (LeDoux, 1994, p. 50-57).

GOAL IV: Analyze Research Studies to Determine the Relevancy of Current Instructional Design Practice

Various research studies have been conducted in the past few years to determine the relevance of instructional design practice based on brain-based learning. These studies prove the significance as well as the connection between the human brain and human behavior that is energized by human learning.

The study by Sylwester (1993, 1994) indicates the brain developmental research as well as supports the brain-based learning theory. This study proves the existence and combination of above hundred billion neurons that make up the human brain forming a web of highly concentrated and intricate processor called the brain. Calling and studying the human brain as modular, Sylwester elucidates “how a few standard non-thinking components combine information to form a complex cognitive environment” (Green 1999). Moreover, other innumerable contemporary studies also stress the significance and the role of the elders especially parent or guardians and the teachers in developing a child’s brain and his ability to learn. Another study by Guild (1994) indicates the importance and the urgent need to use diverse instructional approaches to address the needs of all the individuals forming a group with different levels of thinking, learning capacities and brain development. Moreover, some researchers also stress on the need to understand the impact of cultural values and norms on the human brain and thus on the learning ability. Furthermore, studies by Black (1997) demonstrate the importance of music in brain development and learning. “Musical experiences are displayed in the brain as multimodal involving auditory, visual, cognitive, affective, and motor systems. Both the right and left hemispheres of the brain are involved in processing music. The musical nourishment and enrichment of young children stimulates the formation of connections (synapses) and the growth of branching extensions (dendrites) in the brain” (Green, 1999). Thus, multimodel approaches in instructional designs certainly produce better results than unimodel and music helps the young learners in their perceptual and psychological development. The study by Caine and Crowell (1994) further outline “stress management, nutrition, exercise, and maturation” (Green, 1999) as certain physiological factors that affect the capacity to learn. Moreover, research proves that with multimodel instruction learning ameliorates without modifying the cognitive load plus training time decreases many folds thereby saving precious time and utilizing it in better areas. (Gellevij et al., 2002, p. 215).

GOAL V: Review Models of Instructional Design

Following are the eight fundamental components and didactic as well as scholarly strategies of an effective and a successful instructional design model that reflects a “brain compatible classroom” and provides a comprehensive guide for educators and academic counselors: (*Component headings have been taken verbatim from the URL-based source)

Component # 1: Absence of Threat

When brain-based learning is applied to the instructional design, teachers must make sure that students coming to the classroom do not feel threatened for as mentioned above, by posing a threatening situation or be punishing the natural learning process of the brain, learner’s ability to get enlightened diminishes many folds. Punishing the brain hinders the learning capacity of the student making the classroom highly brain-incompatible. In order to fulfill this requirement to transmute learning and instructing environment into brain-compatible academic milieu there are various easy-to-follow instructional strategies. Firstly, the teachers must prepare a “daily agenda” placed in the classroom soft board or any other notice board where students can easily view it and know what is expected of them for that specific day (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms). This encourages organization and makes the learners wanted and welcomed. Moreover, teachers must plan out task-completion guides in the form of mini, pragmatic and self-explanatory step-by-step procedures for the students to help them in completing the required tasks essential for learning behavior (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms). There must also be adhesion of the “lifelong guidelines” pertaining to the character and learning development of the students with the help of counseling sessions, constructive activities, encouraging moralistic behavior and a constant chain of modeling and regular agendas. These perpetual and positive directives include “Be Truthful, Be Trustworthy, No put-downs, Active Listening, Personal Best” (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms). The instructional strategy of “target talk” is also highly rewarding in quick and quality learning of the students (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms). Moreover, what is far more important than all the instructional strategies extracted from the instructional design researched studies, is the teaching of “brain biology” at the early stages of schooling and learning (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms). Moreover, by incorporating Davenport’s Seven skills in the instructional design, an absence-of-threat teaching environment can be successfully created. This is because the attributes of “caring, teamwork, responsibility, effort, initiative, perseverance and common sense” help students learn the importance of a united, harmonious, amicable learning ambience that fosters not only educational confidence but also assists in character and image building (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms).

Component # 2: Collaboration

The best way to promote combined efforts while learning is to incorporate the element of collaborative activities in the instructional design (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms). This can be done by the instructional strategies of “community building,” “class meetings” and “cooperative groups” (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms). Allocating time for class discussions, group discussions and resolving issues to maintain a healthy learning environment drastically ameliorates learners’ learning and comprehension ability.

Component # 3: Enriched Environment

Using “being there” locations and outside learning settings for students apart from a traditional classroom environment also facilitates brain learning (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms). Moreover, for adequate and rapid as well as attentive learning of the students, it is highly essential that “clutter-free environments” be created (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms). Since experience and extensive research by some of the best experts in the related field demonstrates that rich-in-motivation learning environments help students learn faster with their interest intact, “environment conducive to learning” must be created at all levels of instruction (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms). Accordant colors like light shades of green and blue that have a soothing and a stress-relieving impact must be used while decorating a classroom (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms). Specialists in the field and relevant magnum opuses must be frequently presented to the students. “Music, lamps, plants and potpourri” make the learning environment attractive, appealing to the aesthetic senses and further facilitate the learning procedure. Moreover, an enriching environment motivates learners to actively participate in it and to look forward to going to school rather than consider school-learning period as a mere daytime nightmare.

Component # 4: Immediate Feedback

Constant and rapid feedback can be sought from the student’s body by applying various strategies to the instructional design of a teaching procedure. With the help of the “student’s binders” and by providing all the learners with a self-help guide “rubrics,” the goal of seeking constant students’ response can be conveniently accomplished (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms). Formal as well as informal evaluation processes time and again, a constant monitoring of the student’s performance and calling parent’s teacher’s meetings can considerably assist student learning (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms).

Component # 5: Meaningful Content

Demonstrating the practical application of what students are compelled to learn at school helps them in comprehending the significance of attending school regularly and the meaningfulness of their studies (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms). Moreover, curriculum development must be well balanced with equal attention given to all the subjects. Furthermore, the curriculum must be interconnected with every subject somehow linked to another with the help of sharing concepts (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms). In addition to the above, “C.U.E.: design content that is creative, useful, and emotional, Age Appropriate Content: content that is meaningful and of interest to the learner and Critical Content: facts; what instructors want students to know and when they’re going to do with it” must be incorporated in the teaching curriculum (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms).

Component # 6: Multiple Intelligence

An instructional design must look into the various highly important kinds of intelligence including “linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial-visual, musical-rhythmic, naturalists, intrapersonal, interpersonal, and bodily kinesthetic” that must form an integral part of the instructional strategies (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms). These multiple intelligence can be incorporated in the learning methodologies by using the popular “science behaviors” including “observing, comparing, organizing, applying and communicating” (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms). On the same account, “visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic” are the most commonly used and known instructional styles for incorporating choice intelligence (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms). Thus, the multiple intelligence can be made an effective part of student learning through planning it and placing it in the instructional design following six domains of Bloom’s Taxonomy starting with getting the relevant data and valuable knowledge regarding the subject to be taught moving to the comprehension stage. Then to the application part following the necessary analysis and evaluation as well as the synthesis. (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms)

Component # 7: Adequate Time

Allocation of proper time for every significant activity further enhances the learning ability and makes the instructional design effective and learning-oriented as well as student friendly. The “less is best” approach is actually the best way to give adequate time to reasonable amount of concepts and assignments coverage rather just dragging the student and over-exerting him to cram everything but learn nothing (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms). Likewise, educators must allocate time for step-by-step “mental programs” while drafting and planning an instructional design in order to help their students. In addition to the above, students must be helped by their educators in recognizing patterns to develop strong perceptions and clear understanding of how to extract meaning out of the relevant data. (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms)

Component # 8: Mastery

Students must be helped in organizing their line of reasoning and their thinking ability with the help of the process of “meta-cognition” (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms). Moreover, the three C’s of evaluation namely “complete, correct, and comprehensive” are three primary keywords providing teachers a valuable three-step guide to assess the performance of their students (Erickson: Brain-Compatible classrooms). Moreover, the art of mastering can further be promoted by encouraging students to conduct fictitious classes therein teaching and sharing at the same time their experiences and knowledge that they gained all along.

GOAL VI: Analyze Current Models to Determine Criteria for the Best Practice of Instructional Design Principles

For the evaluation and prompt analysis of the current models help the educators in determining the criteria for the best practice of instructional design principles. The brain-based learning provides three fundamental instructional techniques that assist teachers and researchers in evaluating the effectiveness of an instructional design model. These are as follows:

Orchestrated immersion” motivates students to remain immersed in their learning environment while compelling instructors to create appealing instructional ambience. (Brain-based learning, 1998-2001)

Through “Relaxed alertness,” educators can assist their students to learn faster without fearing the authorities in charge or the course material. (Brain-based learning, 1998-2001)

The third instructional technique suggests “Active processing” thereby “allowing the learner to consolidate and internalize information by actively processing it” (Brain-based learning, 1998-2001).

Moreover, research suggests that the evaluation of the student performance and the instructional strategies of the design must be done in order to eliminate the shortcomings. For the same reason, researchers have strongly recommended the CBA approach of carrying the evaluation procedure. Curriculum-based assessment helps the teachers to further ameliorate their instructional strategies by “continuing the cycle of curriculum analysis, data gathering and data interpretation” (Jones, 1998). Curriculum-based assessment allows teachers to ease achievement by regulating “(a) the difficulty of the material, (b) the time expected to reach criteria, – the level of performance required of the student, (d) the kind and level of support for learning provided to the student, and (e) the kind of intervention provided to the student” (Jones, 1998).

In conclusion, brain-based learning theory can be safely and effectively applied to the instructional design.


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