One of the most common ailments is cardiovascular disease. According to the Centers for Disease Control, nearly 600 thousand people die every year from this condition. The costs are totaling $108.90 billion annually from lost productivity, medications and health care services. This is illustrating the overall scope of the problem and the impact it is having on society. To fully understand the patho-physiology of cardiovascular disorders requires focusing on: genetic factors / their impact on the condition, the alteration (i.e. congestive heart failure) and how hypertension can lead to the complications. Together, these elements will highlight the primary causes and the impact it is having on the underlying levels health for large segments of society. (“Heart Disease Facts,” 2013)
Patient Factor: Genetics and its Impact on their Condition
Congestive heart failure is when the individual cannot pump enough blood to meet their body’s needs. This is caused from some kind of blockage that is slowing the flow through one of the ventricles. The way that this is impacting the patho- physiology is to increase the chances of the heart becoming completely blocked or too weak to meet the demands of the body. When this happens, the odds increase that they will have fatal stroke or heart attack. Genetics is having a major impact on the patient’s condition. This is because the genes which are inherited from relatives will play a major part in determining who is most susceptible. (“Heart Failure,” 2013) (Kolata, 2010) (“Heart Disease and Stroke,” 2012)
In a study that was conducted by the University of Cincinnati, researchers concluded that people who inherit two common gene variants are ten times more likely to have congestive heart failure. These findings were determined by carefully examining 159 patients with congestive heart failure and comparing them with 189 people who did not have any of these issues. During this process, there was a focus on race and lifestyle choices (with both being equal for each of these groups). They concluded that genetics is one of the single most important factors in determining if someone is likely to develop the condition. (Kolata, 2010)
This is illustrating how hereditary traits will have a major impact on if someone is susceptible to the disease. Those who are the vulnerable will have specific genes they inherit from their relatives, who were impacted by the condition. This increases their chances of having similar complications when they become older. (Kolata, 2010)
Congestive Heart Failure and Hypertension
Congestive heart failure and hypertension are interconnected with each other. According to a study conducted by the University of Texas, they found that there are 660 thousand new cases reported each year. This is accounting for 7% of all deaths associated with cardio vascular disease. One of the biggest factors that will determine if someone is at risk is hypertension. As this is used in 75% of all cases, to predict if someone will be impacted by congestive heart failure and the long-term effects it will have on them. (Merla, 2009)
Hypertension can lead to complications by increasing the chances of ventricle or systolic dysfunction taking place. This improves the chances of someone being impacted by these complications and the lasting effects it will have on them. For health care professionals, this allows them to understand how it is related to cardiovascular disease, the complications and the impact it will have on the health of the patient. (Merla, 2009)
This is illustrating how hypertension can lead to heart failure. The way that it occurs is through an increase in the person’s blood pressure. This will serve as a warning sign of possible complications. If it is not addressed, their condition will continue to become worse until they have complications. This can result in a fatal stroke or heart attack. (Merla, 2009) (Kolata, 2010) (“Heart Disease and Stroke,” 2012)
Heart Disease Fact. (2013). CDC. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/facts.htm
Heart Disease and Stroke. (2012). Lasker Foundation. Retrieved from:
Heart Failure. (2013). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/heart-failure/DS00061
Kolata, G. (2010). 2 Altered Genes. NY Times. Retrieved from:
Merla, R. (2009). Management of Hypertension in Chronic Heart Failure. Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy,
7 (4), 423 — 433.
APA Format http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
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