Welcome aboard the SS William Harvey! As you well know the human body is a complex system of intricate cells that work together to maintain a perfect and efficient environment on which an individual can thrive. Two systems in the human body that work together to ensure that a human individual remains healthy are the circulatory and the cardiopulmonary systems. Working in conjunction with each other, these systems help with the transportation of gasses, nutrients, and hormones to different organs within the human body. While the intricate mazes that make up the different systems in the human body may confuse some individuals, finding one’s way from the femoral vein in the circulatory system to the lungs is not as complicated as it sounds.
Join us as we embark on this Fantastic Voyage through the human body as we visit and discover new cells and organs of the human body. We currently find ourselves in the right femoral vein of a healthy female body. We were injected into this site with the sole purpose of finding our way to the right lung. But first, we must find our way to the right lung from our current position.
In the femoral vein you will note that we are surrounded by deoxygenated blood, which means that we must find our way to the lungs so that our surrounding blood can get oxygenated and continue to supply oxygen to various organs of the body. As we travel via the femoral vein to the heart, you will notice that we are surrounded by three types of blood cells: erythrocytes — aka red blood cells, leukocytes — aka white blood cells, and thrombocytes — aka platelets (Cotterill, 2000). In order to move anywhere within the circulatory system, we must wait for the human heart to pull and push us to various parts of the body with every heartbeat. On average, the human heart will beat an average of 60 to 80 beats per minute (Gregory, n.d.). As we begin to move through the femoral vein up towards the heart, we will find ourselves begin to merge with the right external iliac vein. The right external iliac vein is charged with transporting deoxygenated blood from the legs back up to the heart. The right external iliac vein is located behind the inguinal ligament in the lower region of the abdomen (Inner Body, 2011). If you look out the window, you will notice that we are rapidly approaching a much bigger tunnel. This is the inferior vena cava. As we begin to merge into this large vein, we must remember that we are not the ones travelling into the inferior vena cava and that blood from the left side of the body also converges here. The inferior vena cava is a large vein that ascends an individual’s abdomen up towards the heart (Inner Body, 2011). While we are here, please notice how blood from the hepatic veins, lumbar veins, gonadal veins, renal veins, and phrenic veins converge into one large blood pool that will be collectively transported to the heart. With every heartbeat, we find ourselves one step closer to the heart and one step closer to our target, the right lung. Before you know it, we find ourselves in the superior vena cava and must wait only seconds before we are pulled into the heart.
The heart is a unique organ and is solely responsible for making sure that blood is moved throughout the body through various channels called arteries, veins, and capillaries. The heart has two different pumps that are made up of an atrium and a ventricle. Each pump is responsible for pumping blood to different parts of the body. The left side of the heart is responsible for pumping blood to various parts of the body, while the right side of the heart is responsible for pumping blood to the lungs (Gregory, n.d.). To get into the heart itself, we must pass through the right atrium where blood from the inferior and superior vena cava is collected. Take a look at the right atrium’s structure. The right atrium has “relatively thin walls and receives blood returning [to the heart] through the veins” (Inner Body, 2011). As quickly as the heart involuntarily pumps once again, we will pass through the tricuspid valve that will close up behind us so that no blood accidentally flows back into the right atrium and into the right ventricle. The right ventricle, like the left ventricle, work together by forcing blood out of the heart into different arteries that will take blood various parts of the body (Inner Body, 2011). Specifically, the right ventricle works to make sure that blood is pumped to the lungs. Additionally, the right ventricle, as opposed to the left ventricle, has a much thinner wall because it does not need to exert as much force as the left ventricle to pump blood to the lungs as they are closer to the heart than the left ventricle’s bloody tunnels.
As we are forced out of the heart we find ourselves in the right pulmonary artery. This artery is much thicker and longer than the artery that leads to the left lung. Pretty soon, and with the assistance of the heart’s pumping action, we find ourselves on our way to the lungs. The right pulmonary artery transverses the upper chest and travels below the aortic arch before it reaches the hilum of the right lung. This right pulmonary artery leads directly into the right lung and helps to keep the lung healthy by providing it with a steady supply of blood. The right pulmonary artery is unique because it is one of the few arteries in the human body that does not transport oxygenated blood, but rather takes blood to be oxygenated. From this point, we will begin the final leg of our fantastic voyage moving towards the lower lobe of the right lung towards alveoli where carbon dioxide is released from the body through gas exchange.
***News Alert*** We have just been informed that bacteria are attempting to attack the right lung and that we will find ourselves in the midst of combat! In order for an attack to commence, airway epithelial cells will signal white blood cells, also called neutrophils, “to move from the bloodstream into the lungs and airway to fight potential infection” (New Research Shows How Lungs Fight Bacteria and Prevent Infection, 2009). In order for these white blood cells to be called into action, epithelial proteases must be activated; “the opening of these junctions is initiated by a change in calcium levels” (New Research Shows How Lungs Fight Bacteria and Prevent Infection, 2009). Once neutrophils have been released, they stick to “bacteria or fungi, rendering it immovable or useless, or they may release chemicals that kill bacteria. They may also be on catch, destroy and eat missions in which they fight infections to the death” (How Does the Body Fight Infections?, n.d.). The release of white blood cells to the infected area can either be detrimental or beneficial to the combat of bacteria in a specific site of the body. For instance, “too many white blood cells can lead to excessive inflammation, interfering with breathing and damaging the airways” (New Research Shows How Lungs Fight Bacteria and Prevent Infection, 2009). Because of this, it is important to figure out how to control how many white blood cells are released to combat bacteria, especially in the lungs. Additionally, phagocytes may also be released into the lungs, which will create “environments inhospitable for infection” (How Does The Human Body Fight Infections?, n.d.).
On the other hand, it has also been found that friendly bacteria help to fend off viral infections in the lungs. Studies have shown “that mice treated with neomycin antibiotics were more susceptible than control mice to influences viruses. It turned out that neomycin-sensitive bacteria naturally present in the mice’s bodies provided a trigger that led to the production of T cells (white blood cells) and antibodies that could fight and influenza infection in the lungs” (Maxmen, 2011).
At last the bacteria has been destroyed and we may now find our way out of the body through the respiratory system. From here, we will make our way up to the bronchioles and bronchii, up through to the trachea and larynx, past the pharynx and up through the nose before being released to the outside world once again. This concludes our fun and exciting journey. I hope that you will join us on our next journey through the human body.
Cotterill, S. (2000). The cardiovascular system (heart and blood): medical terminology for cancer. Department of Child Health. University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Retrieved 27 July 2012, from http://www.cancerindex.org/medterm/medtm8.htm
Gregory, M (n.d.). The circulatory system. Clinton Community College. State University of New York. Retrieved 27 July 2012, from http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/Bio%20100/Bio%20100%20Lectures/Organ%20Systems/Circulatory%20System/Circulatory%20System.htm
How does the body fight infections? (n.d.). WiseGeek. Retrieved 27 July 2012, from http://www.wisegeek.com/how-does-the-human-body-fight-infections.htm
Inner Body. (2011). All systems. Retrieved 27 July 2012, from http://www.innerbody.com/htm/body.html
Maxmen, A. (2011, March 14). Friendly bacteria fight the flu. Nature: International Weekly
Journal of Science. Retrieved 27 July 2012, from http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110314/full/news.2011.159.html
New Research Shows How Lungs Fight Bacteria and Prevent Infection. (2009, January 23).
Research: Breakthroughs in knowledge and ideas at Columbia. Columbia University in the City of New York. Retrieved 27 July 2012, from http://www.columbia.edu/cu/news/research/09/01/lungs.html
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more