Perrett, R. W., & Patterson, J. (1991). Virtue ethics and Maori ethics. Philosophy East and West, 41(2), 185-202.
â€¢ The argument of the author is that the Maori Ethics is a representation of the virtue ethics as it is a representation of what one should be and not how one should act. The author alludes to Aristotle’s perceptions of ethics and differentiates the concept of virtue ethics from the deontological and consequentialist theories. The concept of the self as the prime moral agent of nature is one of the main argument brought forward by the authors.
â€¢ Verbatim: The main thesis of this essay is that traditional New Zealand Maori ethics is a virtue ethics.
â€¢ The research question is: what type of ethics is the Maori ethics and how does it relate to the other forms of ethics described today? This question is answered using various arguments that relate to the concept of ethics known today and the way various theorists describe it.
â€¢ The article adds to the knowledge on ethics by arguing that both consequentialism and Kantianism have the wrong perception of the fundamentals of ethics. In the views of the author, Maori ethics is a description of a virtue ethics that describes what a person should be based on nature. The Maori people are supposed to emulate their ancestors and it is for this reason that the use the term “tika” to mean the natural.
The author quotes some parts of Aristotle’s work to show the relationship it has with the Maori form of ethics. They question the stand taken by the consequentialism and Kantianism approaches to ethics by arguing that they got the fundamentals of ethics all wrong. The author looks at the work of other researchers in explaining the concept of the Maori Ethics. The development of the essay draws some conclusions from the work done earlier by other scholars such as Best, Johansen, Schwimmer and Lewis. All these researchers have done an analysis of the Maori Ethics before.
Section 1 185-186
The essay addresses the meaning of virtue ethics. The authors explain the meaning from the perspective of various approaches such as the Aristotelian approach to ethics. One thing that emerges is that the Maori ethics can be best understood using the Maori virtues. This means that the virtues are the basic concept in the Maori ethics.
â€¢ “A more moderate position is that what theories like Aristotle’s show us is that any adequate ethical theory must do justice to the essential part the virtues play (perhaps by including both a theory of right conduct and a theory of virtue.” The argument shows that virtues are an integral part of the Maori Ethics as they attempt to connect the self with the arguments of nature.
Section 2: 186-189
The author in this section looks at the reasons that are there to explain the Maori ethics as virtue ethics. The concept of “tika” is well elaborated in relation to nature. The connection of the Maori ethics and the Aristotelian ethics and the connection they have in relation to the inner drive to have a certain character are well outlined.
â€¢ “Both Maori ethics and Aristotelian ethics, then, associate the good with the cultivation of a certain excellence of character. Moreover, both identify human excellence or virtue with being “natural,” fulfilling one’s function.” This means that ethics among the Maori is measured in terms of the character that one has. This character is drawn from the inspiration of nature and the ancestors.
â€¢ “By saying that the Maoris did not build the opposition “good and evil” into their world order, I do not mean that they knew no morality. There is no reason to believe that. It is rather that they had not codified morality. It was a more informal, less ordered concept. There were no Ten Commandments, yet in one way or another people were restrained from doing the things forbidden in the Ten Commandments.” The argument is used to discredit the argument that is brought forward by critics that the Maori do not have a distinction between good and evil. Despite them lacking in some aspects of the Ten Commandments or rules that govern character, they are restrained by their natural approach to things from doing the things that violate the Ten Commandments.
Section 3 189-193
In this section, the authors look at the relationship or the differences and similarities that are there between Aristotle’s argument of the great-souled and the Maori view of rangatira. These two concepts are conjoined in the view of virtue ethics to argue that not all humans are the same as there are those who have better natural qualities than others do. According to the Maori, these qualities are usually instilled in a person before one is born and are used in the selection of leaders (Furness, Nikora, Hodgetts, & Robertson, 2016).
Section 4: 193-199
In this section, the focus of the authors is on the self as an agent of morality in the society. The authors argue that the Maori view the concept of the self in a way that is non-individualistic and one that is narrative based. The use of the pronoun ‘I’ shows the unity among the Maori (Furness, Nikora, Hodgetts, & Robertson, 2016). Even in things that are considered evil in other societies, the Maori view remains that of unity. The Maori are entrenched into the concept of the tribe to the extent that he or she is always employing the personal pronoun I to describe the tribe. The historical and the social identity that is provided by that tribal tradition is what give unity to the people (Smith, 2014).
All these traditions are usually narrative based. Among the Maori, the valued character traits are usually taught through stories (Durie, 2013). The concept of virtue ethics among the Maori also extends to the sociopolitical order of the society. This can be understood by looking at the concept of ritual authority and political power that is found among the Maori people. Political authority was based on personal achievement. Those of high rank only became political leaders if they demonstrated some traits.
â€¢ “Moreover, persons of high rank could lose effective leadership (in nonritual matters) as the result of personal in- competence, and persons of low rank could rise to positions of political power solely on the basis of personal ability.” This is an indication that the society was more concerned with the self as an agent of morality and in which one had to conform to what the society believed to be an integral part of leadership. This can be used to explain why hierarchy among the Maori did not mean political power but only the ritual authority.
â€¢ “Thus hierarchy in Maori society did not entail political power, only graduated ritual authority. In this sense, if we construe the closed/open contrast as one between ascribed status and acquired status we can see that Maori society is not entirely either, for it is closed with respect to ritual authority but open with respect to political power.” This shows that wealth or ritual authority did not mean that one automatically became a leader.
Durie, E. T. (2013). Ethics and Values in Maori Research. He Pukenga Korero, 4(1).
Furness, J., Nikora, L. W., Hodgetts, D., & Robertson, N. (2016). Beyond Ethics to Morality: Choices and Relationships in Bicultural Research Settings. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 26(1), 75-88.
Perrett, R. W., & Patterson, J. (1991). Virtue Ethics and Maori Ethics. Philosophy East and West, 41(2), 185-202.
Smith, B. (2014). Maori-Centered Codes of Ethics: Championing Inclusiveness in Creating Professional Codes of Ethics across the New Zealand Health Sector. N Z. Med J. 4; 127(1397): 9-12.
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more