Extinction is used in a combined and separate form, also, as differential reinforcement of other behavior, which is known as a DRO. This is for the purpose of finding out if there is a reduction of shouting, which is unwanted behavior, witnessed at a daycare facility where there are young children. Reinforcement through attention is an effective way of ensuring that the problem is solved. The participants showed that through DRO and extinction, the problem of shouting is eliminated. This is regardless of the other methods, which were used in the experiment (Wilder & Atwell & Wine, 2006).
DESCRIPTORS: Shouting, problem behavior, differential reinforcement extinction, daycare children, attention, acknowledged, ignored.
Most young children encounter their first interactions when they are with other children and mostly in daycare centers. Some children tend to express the problem behavior of shouting, which in turn affects them, as they carry out various activities. During playtime, the shouting problem behavior occurs often and this means that it needs to be addressed as well as intervened. It has been proven that an analysis of behavior occurs when the strategy of behavior is used. It is meant for the purpose of ensuring that unwanted behavior does not exist (McCord &Thomson & Iwata, 2001). In order to remove the reinforce, which is interfering with the behavior, extinction has to occur. The latter has to be terminated or withdrawn using the most effective manner. Behavior extinction occurs when the results of withdrawal have been witnessed. In order to ensure to that the shouting problem behavior is stopped, reinforcement should take place.
For many decades, interventions of a behavioral nature have been an extremely predominant approach during treatment. Children are the ones, who are subjected to this approach in order to ensure that they adapt and function according to their environment. Assessment of behavior among children has improved significantly due to the refined techniques, which are also advanced. In turn, the children are trained through rehabilitation and also, their development of skills improves drastically. According to Wilder, 2006, the problem behavior should be identified early enough. This ensures that teachers and parents find effective solutions for dealing with this issue. In order for the DRO to become successful, the children should be constantly reminded of the consequences of their actions. The teachers and parents should make sure that their verbal cues are made known to the children. This is effective in reducing shouting among the children (Wilder et al, 2006). It has been found out that young children, who show good behavior by not shouting, should be rewarded through acknowledgment. Other children will follow good behavior since they know that they will be rewarded also. The behavior being targeted is shouted and reinforcement in the form of DRO is extremely effective. It ensures that the occurrence of the behavior does not progress further.
It has been found out that in order to reduce shouting among children, they should be ignored. This means that no attention should be given to them unless they raise their hands. Also, the children will be acknowledged so long as shouting is not done by them, and their hands are raised up. This means that they will receive the attention, which they need. Studies, which have been done on this issue are not many, thus there are no conclusive results that the DRO will work effectively in this situation. The children in the daycare facilities are able to provide sufficient information regarding extinction from the evidence it provides. The chosen variable, which is independent, focusing on school children, who are young, has been proven effective in other studies.
The reason for using the DRO extinction method is because other interventions, which are positive, have not been conclusive enough. It is not very clear whether the problem function is due to the different mechanisms, which affect their lives. Attention given to the children is the remedy and this is because of DRO and extinction. In order to fully understand how this problem behavior functions, a thorough analysis has to be done, by following the right procedures. It is vital that the children refrain from activities, which might make them to shout. Avoidance is always a key option in dealing with this problem behavior. Teachers are parents should not overlook the recommendations, which are presented to them (Grow et al, 2008). This is because once children are aware that shouting is not good, they will not continue with this problem behavior. Also, more evaluation needs to be done concerning the effects of using DRO and extinction methods when dealing with the problem of shouting, among young children in day care centers. The purpose for conducting this study is to find out if unwanted behaviors can be gotten rid of using the method of differential reinforcement. The latter should be able to ensure that the problem behavior becomes extinct.
Grow, L.et al. (2008). The utility of extinction-induced response variability for the selection of maids. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41, 15–24.
McCord, B. &Thomson, R. & Iwata, B. (2001). Functional analysis and treatment of self-injury associated with transitions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 195–210.
Wilder, D. & Atwell, J. & Wine, B. (2006). The effects of varying levels of treatment integrity on child compliance during treatment with a three-step prompting procedure. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39, 369–373.
Wilder, D. et al. (2006). Brief functional analysis and treatment of tantrums associated with transitions in preschool children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39, 103–107.
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