Efficiency in Client Server Applications Essay

greatbabyproducts.com / and http://www.airnewzealand.co.nz / . In this analysis, we suggest the architectural components on the three layers of the 3-tier architecture. This is carried out in a systematic manner with an analysis and mention of the summary of the website’s functionality, an analysis of the presentation layer components, analysis of the business logic layer components and finally an analysis of the data layer components.

The three-tier client-server architecture is client-server architecture in which user interface (UI), functional process logic (also referred to as business logic), data storage logic as well as data access module are all developed and subsequently maintained as totally independent modules. In most cases they are based on separate platforms (Eckerson,1995). It is worth noting that the three tier model is both software design pattern as well as software architecture. Other than the main advantage of the three-tier architecture is its ability to allow for any of the intended 3-tiers to be effectively replaced or upgraded independently as technology and requirements change. This is to say that for instance, a modification in the operating system of the presentation tier would just result in an effect on the coding of the user interface.

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In a typical setup, the user interface is executed on a PC and it employs a standard graphical user interface (GUI). The functional process logic however, may be made up of one or more independent modules that are running on a special workstation or an application server. The computer storage logic/data storage layer is contained in a mainframe or a database server (RDBMS).

Three-tier architecture has the following tires.

The presentation tier

This is the uppermost level of a three tier architecture application. Its function is to display the information that is concerned with services such as browsing of products and services, purchasing them and the content of the shopping cart. Its role is to communicate with the rest of the tiers by effectively outputting the necessary outcome to the browser or rather client tier as well as the rest of the tiers.

The application tier

This is also referred to as the business logic tier/middle tier or data access tier and its role is to control the functionality of a given application through the performance of a highly detailed information processing.

The data tier

This tier is made up of database server systems. Within this tier, data is stored as well as retrieved as necessary. Its other function is to effectively keep the data independent and neutral from both the business logic and the application servers. Scalability and performance is ensured by giving data its own and independent tier.

Analysis of http://greatbabyproducts.com/

Site overview http://greatbabyproducts.com / is a site that is dedicated to the sale of infant materials at low and discounted prices.

Summary of the site’s functionality

Users / customers can easily buy the products via the shopping cart and then pay for their purchases online. The products are arranged in categories such as Bath, Clothing, Covers, Diapering, Gear, Gift, Health, Maternity, Nursery, Replacement parts, Safety, Sun and swim, Toys, Twins and finally Unique. The categories are further having subcategories which then hold the items being sold. As an example the Bath category is further having subcategories; Bath safety, Bath and Toys Potty Training. The next level that follows is a series of product views which comprises of Standard view, Gallery View and Compact view. This is shown in the screenshot below;

One then chooses an item then adds to shopping cart. When shopping is finished, the client just then proceeds to checkout to pay for the purchase using Credit Card, Paypal and many other techniques of online payment.

The Presentation Layer Components

This layer display the information that is concerned with services such as browsing of baby products, purchasing them and the content of the shopping cart. Its role is to communicate with the rest of the tiers by effectively outputting the necessary outcome to the browser or rather client tier as well as the rest of the tiers. It is presented in the screenshot below;

The presentation layer for http://greatbabyproducts.com/

The presentation layer components

1. Shopping cart

A shopping cart is defined by Webopedia (n.d ) as a piece of software that is employed to act as an online store’s catalogue as well as an ordering system. Its role is to act as an interface between the online store and the underlying deeper infrastructure, thus allowing customer (users) the ability to select the merchandise they need to purchase, review the selected items and then subsequently make the necessary modification and additions. The last step in the shopping experience/process is the purchasing of the item using a credit card or paypal.

The shopping cart component that is displayed in the screenshot below is used to handle the order on the website.

2. Browse module/component

This module contains the categories that list the subcategories and items that are available at the online store.

It also houses a listing/links to what’s new, Hot deals, Clearance, Top 20 sellers, Top rated, Customer Top Wishes and Popup Super deals.

3. Top sellers module/component

This component displays the name of the top selling items on the online store.

4. New Arrivals

This component lists the latest arrivals on the online shop

5. Resources component/module

This module contains additional information such as terms of privacy and shipping information. It also houses the online support link and phone numbers.

6. The Hot deals and Clearance modules

These contain a list of the hottest deals and clearance sales at any instant

7. Footer component

The footer component contains a list of items such as links to social media and the accepted means of payments

The application tier

This is also known to as the business logic tier or the data access tier and its role is to control the functionality of a given application through the performance of a highly detailed information processing. In this site it is located in the shopping cart source code and the product search module. This also includes the application servers used in developing the applications such as the shopping cart and the product search modules.

A close look at the source code suggests that the application server in use is Sun Java Application Server. This is indicated in the line of code below;


The data tier

This is where the data for the site is stored and retrieved

The possible table existing are;

tblcart with columns such as price, time, date tblproduct with columns like name, color tblprice with columns such as amount

Query names

A sample query statement from the site


< d>


< able class=”generalbold” border=”0″ cellpadding=”0″ cellspacing=”0″ width=”100″>

< body>


Site overview http://www.airnewzealand.co.nz / this is a site dedicated to the booking of cheap flights as well as holidays.

Summary of the site’s functionality

The site has a flight booking module that takes the passage details such as the date of flight and return data. It also takes in the details such as the number of children and infants .Holidays and cars can also be booked via this module. This module is then connected to the shopping cart.

The Presentation Layer Components

This layer contains a lot of modules that are used in order as to inform the visitor on various things on the holiday and flights to be booked. It is highly informatory. Most of the information for this layer is available in the homepage below;

The components are;

Flights, holidays and cars booking module, the offers module, airports tab, about us tab, current highlights module and the manage bookings module.

The application tier

The application tier of the site http://www.airnewzealand.co.nz / resides in the Flights, holidays and cars booking module. It processes information on the flight departure and arrival times, calculates the flight charges and then posts the charge to a shopping cart that then charges the credit card of the traveler.

The components are; the shopping cart and the flight checker module.

This component searches for the appropriate flights, helps the passenger to create itinerary, provides the flight details, purchases the ticket via a shopping cart and then confirms the booking via an email and a hard copy receipt print. This component is powered with JavaScript and visual basics from the look at the source code snippets such as;

Create Itinerary

Select the flight options that best suit your travel plans.

Learn more about our different economy products.


Paying for your flights with a charge, credit or debit card incurs a fee of $5.00 per passenger per one way journey. This fee is not charged for bookings paid by internet banking (POLi), Travelcard or Airpoints Dollars.




The data tier

This tier stores and retrieved data from the application database.

A look at the functionality of the site reveals that is it powered with a relational database management system (RDBMS) due to the interrelated nature of the database elements.Example of possible tables are Flights, Passengers with corresponding columns of flight number and passenger name etc.


Eckerson, W.W.(1995) “Three Tier Client/Server Architecture: Achieving Scalability,

Performance, and Efficiency in Client Server Applications.” Open Information Systems 10, 1 (January 1995): 3(20)

Kambalyal, C (n.d).#-Tier Architecture.

Available online at http://channukambalyal.tripod.com/NTierArchitecture.pdf retrieved 3/15/2011

Renaud, K (2000). HERCULE: monitoring component-based application activity and enabling post-implementation tailoring of feedback. Appeared in Software Engineering for Parallel and Distributed Systems, 2000. Proceedings. International Symposium.

Online sources http://greatbabyproducts.com / http://www.airnewzealand.co.nz/


Fig 1.The three-tier architecture: source, Renaud (2000)

Fig 2. Client/Server 3-Tier Model. Source, ( Kambalyal, n.d)

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