Europe and the World
European and Western powers and the colonial and post-colonial world — India, Algeria, and Viet Nam
Western colonial domination of the ancient kingdoms of India, Vietnam, and Algeria may have marked 19th century world history. But anti-colonial resistance to this oppression marked the ideological debates of 20th century world history. However, the 20th century also saw the rise in the West of the concept of the ‘common individual’ both as a collective concept under communism and as a psychological phenomena with the rise of popular Freudian psychology in England, France, and America. Thus, while post-colonial societies themselves may have exhibited plurality of collective and individualistic forms of economic and political resistance to colonial oppression, when speaking to the West formerly colonized peoples often articulated resistance to oppression is articulated as an individualistic and personal concept of human liberation as well as national liberation.
This melding of the personal and the national is best seen in the examples of Indian resistance articulated in White Teeth, by Zadie Smith. The friendship between two men, the white Cockney and Indian protagonists, is shown to heal both the wounds of colonialism, societal racism, and personal turmoil. The martial meshing, via a relationship, of Black and White British woman and man also becomes an imperfect testimony of the ability of personal relationships to heal political rifts in Britain, and as the daughter, the progeny of this union, proceeds to find happiness and love despite her mixed heritage. In fact, because of her dual exposure as a young person, to two different and contrasting cultures, she is able to be attracted to men of a variety of heritages. This also reflects the often-strident sense of British collective cultural imperialism that marked its domination of India, in everything from alterations in dress to sport.
In Smith’s novel, through achieving interpersonal, familial and sexual unity, the characters achieve the decolonization of the mind advocated by Aime Cesaire in his “Discourse on Colonialism.” Cesaire stresses both those who share the heritage of the oppressors as well as the oppressed must be healed — Cesaire speaks specifically of Algeria, of course, but Zadie Smith also suggests this is true of a multiracial postcolonial England. Unlike Francis Ford Coppola‘s portrayal of immediate American involvement in Vietnam, however, both Smith and Cesaire see hope for redemption outside of government constructs of nationhood and narrow definitions of identity, once nationhood has been achieved and military objectives are no longer of primary concern. Cesaire portrays France’s less intrusive but still stridently nationalistic colonization of Africa is as a creating void of national identity, rather than as an imposition and a source of cultural clash and conflict, as chronicled in India by Smith.
It is important to remember of the earlier document of Cesaire that the author spoke to a populace still attempting to define itself anew, linguistically as well, as a nation after the legacy of French involvement, as embodied in the film “The Battle of Algiers.” Cesaire thus gave more emphasis to national and collective psychological healing than healing personal guilt and interfamily conflict, given his own historical vantage point and his own cultural context in a less stridently self-examining world than Smith’s Great Britain, and a nation less immediately comfortable with its personal identity. Also, unlike India, Algeria was a more religiously and linguistically unified society and had a more coherent ‘identity’ to articulate in response to the French imposition upon African language and culture.
And it is still, when reflecting upon the psychological consequences upon a nation and upon persons, important to recall the practical sentiments of Phuc Viet and Vietnam Hon in their “An Appeal to the League of Nations for the Rights of Self-Determination of the Vietnamese People.” These Vietnamese people stressed that concepts of societal improvement and national prosperity cannot be realized without the achievement of the former, or vice versa. Cesaire wrote to stress that economics and national separation were not enough, while the Vietnamese nationalists in defense of their own nation’s struggle wrote that psychological and national identity were not enough to ensure economic success. They ‘wrote’ their own national coming of age, not in terms of American angst, as did Francis Ford Coppola’s film, but in the language of the desire to advance themselves economically. However, despite the two former French colonist authors’ different emphasis, in their writings both Cesaire’s Algeria and Vietnamese statement show that a sense of independent identity remains important to the formerly oppressed, as is often the main language understood by the Western powers, with the West’s obsession with achieving personal as opposed to a collective sense of independence.
Apocalypse Now Redux. Directed by Francis Ford Coppola.
The Battle of Algiers.” 1967.
Cesaire, Aime. “Discourse on Colonialism.” 1955. Class handout.
Smith, Zadie. White Teeth. New York: Random House, 2000.
Viet, Phuc and Vietnam Hon, “An Appeal to the League of Nations for the Rights of Self-Determination of the Vietnamese People.”
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more