Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal policies essay

Slavery was more than an economic institution; it had completely radicalized the nation. Identity was inextricably tied up with race; even after emancipation, blacks were not truly free, and were certainly not equal. Even in the North, African Americans were second-class citizens, but it was in the South where racism truly flourished. Jim Crow was the most notable manifestation of official policies that preserved racist institutions for generations. When the Great Depression hit, African-Americans in the South were hit especially hard. The Great Depression was one of the major triggers of the great migration of African Americans from the south to the north. Unfortunately, African Americans fared little better socially or economically when they migrated to northern cities. Competition for unskilled and low-wage positions was reaching a peak, causing racial tensions to escalate. The labor movements were not only fledgling, but just as racially segregated as any other social or political institution in America. Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal policies did much to turn around the economy and opened up new opportunities for African Americans, but it was not until the Civil Rights movement that official top-down policies would make a more meaningful difference by outlawing Jim Crow, segregation, and other vestiges of slavery. Even after the Civil Rights movement and all it did to loosen the shackles of oppression, it too decades before there was a sign that Martin Luther King’s dream could be made real: the Obama Presidency. Even while continually being oppressed, African-Americans rose all the way to the top. They endured racial segregation, fought relentlessly for Civil Rights, and went from being slaves to the President of the United States.

In addition to the failure of Reconstruction, the Great Depression dramatically impeded social, political, and economic progress for all Americans—especially African Americans. With limited opportunities in traditional Southern sectors open to African-Americans, like sharecropping, African Americans migrated in unprecedented numbers to northern urban centers in search of new opportunities like factory work. Unfortunately, the Great Depression hit everyone, including factories, and as many as half of all African Americans were unemployed and many destitute (“Great Depression and World War II”). Things were worse in the south due to more violent forms of racism. Yet African Americans worked hard to overcome systematic, violent, and institutionalized racism. One way that African Americans in the South overcame oppression was through community solidarity and what Boyd (2000) calls survivalist entrepreneurialism. Especially for black women in the South, survivalist entrepreneurialism empowered the African American community through small local businesses catering to the black community. This model of economic self-empowerment has remained a mainstay of African American culture ever since, and has enabled the trajectory from slavery to being at the top.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal policies essay
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

Resentment towards the influx of African Americans into the white-dominated labor market fomented racial tensions throughout the nation. Nowhere were racial tensions more apparent than the South, and particularly with Jim Crow. An abundance of primary source evidence shows how terrible Jim Crow was, and what a complete affront to the principles of the nation. Jim Crow was not just a metaphor but a reality, a daily living reality for millions of people. In fact, Jim Crow was not just a Southern phenomenon but a nationwide scourge. Newspaper articles from places as seemingly far removed from slavery as possible, like Minnesota, show how African Americans located no peace or security and were subject to Jim Crow laws ( Jim Crow was a legal system, too, making it impossible to subvert effectively. Yet Jim Crow was more than just a system of unjust laws; Jim Crow was embedded in the culture, manifest in popular culture such as music like the Jim Crow song ( Minstrel shows were also a popular culture example of how central racism was to American culture. On an even more sinister note, blacks were systematically prevented from exercising their constitutionally protected right to vote, they were systematically prevented from attending the best public schools, they were subject to signs like “Negroes and Dogs Not Allowed,” (Patterson, n.d., p. 1). Every conceivable arena of daily life was segregated, from hospitals to movie theaters.

Because of the failures of Reconstruction and the rise of Jim Crow, powerful black thinkers devised methods of self-empowerment that would subvert white authority. Individuals like W.E.B. DuBois did a tremendous amount to change American society. The founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), still one of the premier self-empowerment organizationsn for African Americans, W.E.B. DuBois received his Bachelor’s, Masters, and PhD from Harvard University and taught sociology at the University of Pennsylvania (“NAACP History: W.E.B DuBois,” n.d.). His views on pan-Africanism, black nationalism, and black self-empowerment were contrary to even other African Americans, but prompted tremendous investment in black institutions. The Souls of Black Folk was somewhat revolutionary in that W.E.B strong language to describe institutionalized racism, with the goal of waking up all Americans and encouraging dramatic transformations in African American consciousness. Around the same time that DuBois’s theories on political, economic, and social empowerment flourished, President Roosevelt developed the policies and programs that comprised the New Deal.

According to the Library of Congress, Roosevelt’s presidency and the New Deal made a huge difference for African Americans. Roosevelt “entertained African-American visitors at the White House and was known to have a number of black advisors,” (“Great Depression and World War II,” n.d.). Although many New Deal programs ended up being segregated in the ways they were implemented, and Roosevelt did not fully back the NAACP on all matters, the New Deal did do a lot to raise awareness of the intersection between race and socio-economic class (“Great Depression and World War II,” n.d.). Also around World War Two, African Americans who fought for their country—even though they were on segregated regimens—returned with a greater sense of purpose and power in creating a more perfect nation (Patterson, n.d.). Finally in 1948, President Truman desegregated the American military, but he was unable to sway Congress on passing more sweeping anti-segregation legislation (Patterson, n.d.).

It would be several more decades before more decisive laws would be passed at the national level, laws that would completely dismantle Jim Crow. Even if dismantling Jim Crow occurred more on a legalistic level than a practical one, the Civil Rights era did bring about important changes to the American consciousness and identity, paving the way for the inevitability of the first African American president. The fact that Congress remained so stubborn for so many decades highlights how bad race relations really were in America. Given this, it does seem almost miraculous that within three more generations, the American public voted for its first African American president.

The Civil Rights movement did not emerge out of a vacuum, but represented the culmination of decades—actually, centuries—of frustration and oppression. Knowing that the Constitution now provided for equal protection and equal treatment, African Americans rallied against segregation, and Supreme Court decisions like Plessy v. Ferguson. Brown v. Board of Education was the first sign that changes were afoot in American politics. Decided in 1954, Brown v. Board of Education paved the way for numerous other legal and legislative changes in America. Rosa Parks and other notable African American leaders also began nonviolent protest movements in the spirit of Gandhi, and before long, Dr. Martin Luther King Junior became one of the most important political leaders the nation had ever seen. With a strong, organized, unified network of activists dedicated to civil rights, King helped to usher in a whole new era of national identity. After the Civil Rights movement, and especially after President Johnson passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, it became increasingly difficult to implement racist policies, even if many whites continued to harbor racist attitudes and beliefs. Racism was in some ways pushed underground, but gradually the nation was changing for the better.

When Obama was sworn in, it was a momentous moment for the nation. It was not just the largest attendance of any presidential inauguration in United States history; it was actually the largest attendance of any event in the history of Washington, D.C. (“U.S. Presidential Inaugurations: Barack Obama,” n.d.). In his first inauguration speech, Obama makes a small reference to segregation, but makes a more sweeping statement about how his being elected symbolizes the coming together of a new nation conceived in liberty. Obama states, “We are a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews and Hindus, and non-believers. We are shaped by every language and culture, drawn from every end of this Earth,” (Obama, 2008). While it would have been helpful to have more directly spoken about race during his Presidency, Obama did nevertheless radically transform what it means to be African-American. Obama did not single-handedly eliminate racism, and there are still numerous hills to climb before true racial equality is reached and prejudice has ended. Yet the nation has still come a long, long way.








“The Appeal., November 12, 1904, Image 4.” Library of Congress,

Boyd, R.L. (2000). Race, Labor Market Disadvantage, and Survivalist Entrepreneurship: Black Women in the Urban North During the Great Depression. Sociological Forum 15(4): 647-670.

Brown v. Board of Education.

“Great Depression and World War II.” (n.d.). Library of Congress,

“Jim Crow. Sold wholesale and retail by L. Deming, at the sign of the Barber’s pole Hanover St., Boston, and at Middlebury, Vt.” Library of Congress.

“NAACP History: W.E.B. DuBois.” (n.d.). NAACP.

Obama, President Barack. First inauguration speech:

Patterson, J.T. (n.d.). The Civil Rights movement.

“U.S. Presidential Inaugurations: Barack Obama.” (n.d.). Retrieved online:






Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essay GET A PERFECT SCORE!!! smile and order essay Buy Custom Essay

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.
  +1 718 717 2861           + 44 161 818 7126           [email protected]
  +1 718 717 2861         [email protected]