Ancient Greek Olympics and Their Influence on Sports Today
Most of Greek history has been recorded and printed in great numbers. However, no authentic historic records illustrate Olympic activity before 776 B.C. Nonetheless, it is worth noting here within the contests in Homer’s Iliad, clear indications have been given to these competitive games. The Olympic activity had been carried out mainly in the honor of their god Zeus. Games took place in the great city of Olympia for 4 consecutive days, and sometimes even 5 days, after every four years.
Due to their deep-rooted and extensive history, Olympics held a very prestigious place amongst the Greeks. A variety of games were played, which comprised the Isthmian at Corinth, the Pythian Games at Delphi, as well as, the Nemean at Argos. Paul (2000) gives a brief account of the Olympic activity during the Greek period. He writes, “They were held then, as always, before and since, at Olympia, in the north-west Peloponnese, a relatively insignificant and inaccessible location. They were under the presidency of the local city-state of Elis, again not one of the major players in the ancient Greek league. So far as the sports component went, there were by then nine main events, all for male competitors only: the stadion or one-lap sprint (about 200 metres); diaulos or 400 metres; dolichos or ‘long’ distance (24 laps); pentathlon; boxing; four-horse chariot race; pankration; horse race; and race-in-armour. But the sports component was only one part, and not the most important, of the five-day festival, held at the second full moon after the summer solstice.”
Similar views have been provided by an extremely famous archeologist, David Gilman Romano. David Gilman Romano is considered an expert on Greek history and has authored many books and research studies pertaining to ancient Greece. He writes, “Although there are very few similarities between the ancient and the modern Olympics, the events and developments of the ancient Games provide much food for thought. After the Games of 676 BC came to a close, the festivals at Olympia continued to increase in size and spectacle. Competitions were held every four years for more than a thousand years, until the Games were eliminated altogether toward the end of the 4th century AD by Theodosius, Emperor of Byzantium. Over the centuries, the original purpose and religious significance of the ancient Games became heavily influenced by a variety of political, social, and economic forces and rapidly became a spectacle for athletes to compete for fortune and fame. Looking to the Games of the 26th modern Olympiad, one is compelled to ask if the legacy of the modern Olympics will follow a similar pattern (Taken from: http://www.museum.upenn.edu).”
In the modern world more athletes than ever are articulating their religious faith candidly, quite often to the disappointment of their fans, commentators, as well as their teammates. The debate, however, surrounding the academic and intellectual circles is whether the arenas of sport an appropriate place to proclaim the glory of God.
The articulation of religion can take place in almost any part of the sporting world, from the thrilled boxing rings of Atlantic City and Las Vegas to the extensive standard car tracks of Europe, from the animated stadiums of football in Latin America to the luxurious, green fairways of professional golf in South Africa.
Researchers assert that, in the 1990s, more athletes and sports personalities than ever before have started to candidly articulate their religious faith in the presence of their adversaries, teammates, admirers, as well as, television cameras. They go down on your knees. They pray. They yell. They revel and position their fingers to the heavens, presenting thanks to the God, who they articulate has given them the bravery and power to contend and succeed in their selected sports. And when their workday is complete and their term is ended, they carry on to spread their religious expressions in the world outside sports, by means of their standing and superstar personality to attract both the juvenile and the old in a similar way into campgrounds, associations, programs, as well as, organizations whose reason is to serve the god.
The Influence of Ancient Greek Olympics on Modern Sports
The Site of the Games
The Greeks did not change their venue every time they decided to hold Olympics. The place that would hold Olympics every four years had been fixed and had been the same all the way through. Richard Polidoro and Uriel Simri (1996) give a brief illustration about the location of the games. They write, “The sacred site of Olympia is located at the juncture of the Cladeus and Alpheus rivers in the northwestern part of the Peloponnese. According to the ancients, the site was designated in the 11th century BC as a sacred shrine in honor of the supreme god Zeus. Olympia in 676 BC was probably an open field with an altar erected in honor of Zeus, a small shrine in honor of the legendary Pelops, and a scattering of less significant altars …. The altis, or sacred shrine, was nothing like what we know existed in later times. It only contained the Pelopion (a small shrine in honor of Pelops) and a number of altars, including the major altar dedicated to Zeus. Aside from the stadium, there were very few buildings in Olympia. There were no facilities to train, feed, or house the athletes. The athletes most likely slept along the banks of the two rivers, bathed in the river water, and practiced in an open field. Each athlete was responsible for his own food and supplies.” Similar views have been illustrated by Mallwitz (1972) in his analysis of the structures of the Olympia.
Similarly, David Gilman Romano writes, “The ancient Olympic Games were primarily a part of a religious festival in honor of Zeus, the father of the Greek gods and goddesses. The festival and the games were held in Olympia (see ‘Did you know’ in the glossary), a rural sanctuary site (model shown here, courtesy of the British Museum) in the western Peloponnesos. The Greeks that came to the Sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia shared the same religious beliefs and spoke the same language. The athletes were all male citizens of the city-states from every corner of the Greek world, coming from as far away as Iberia (Spain) in the west and the Black Sea (Turkey) in the east (Taken from: http://www.museum.upenn.edu).”
Influence on Modern Sports
In the modern world, nations and countries compete with one another. The home advantage for the team playing in its own territory has been scrutinized in sport competitions for more than 2 decades. Results have time after time established that there tends to be an accomplishment benefit connected with contending at home amid major qualified and amateur associations, individual teams, as well as, even individual sport athletes (Steven R. Bray, Marc V. Jones and Stephanie Owen. 2002).
The Olympic Program in Ancient Greece
The Olympic Games in Ancient Greece took place under the control of the men who were not common people, by any stretch of imagination. The people who controlled the Olympic Games had been extremely rich, wealthy and influential. This ensured that the Games continued to be managed in a proper way. This enhanced public participation both as spectators and athletes. Richard Polidoro and Uriel Simri (1996) write, “In 676 BC, the Games were under the control of the Pisatan authorities, who were generally men of wealth and notability .the Games were held alternately on the second or third full moon following the summer solstice, which corresponded to the longest day of the year. If this was the case, then the Games of 676 BC would have occurred in the month of July or August.”
Similarly Douskou (1982) note the increasing enthusiasm of the Greeks in the Olympic Festival. He writes, “Originally scheduled as a one-day event, the Games at Olympia expanded to a five-day schedule in the middle of the 5th century BC. To the best of our knowledge, the Games in 676 BC lasted two days. A second day was added to the games in 680 BC to accommodate the addition of the chariot race.”
Influence on Modern Sports
Today more than 200 sports are at the center stage of international events. These events, along with many others, are celebrated with equal enthusiasm all over the world. Some places, like South Asia, express extreme joy over and are ardent fans of cricket, while other places, like America take teen interest in Base Ball, Basket ball and Football (Heather E. Morrow 2004).
Athletes, Officials, and Spectators in Ancient Greece
The athletes came from all over Greece to participate in this historic event. Most of the athletes did not find it difficult to come to Olympia as they resided close by, whereas those who lived in far off places had to travel long distances to come to Olympia. It is interesting to note that all the Greek athletes, spectators and even the officials were not left unguarded as they excellent security measures were taken to guarantee their safety. As Richard Polidoro and Uriel Simri (1996) write, ”
Most of the athletes participating in the Games of 676 BC probably came from various Peloponnesian districts and had a relatively short distance to travel. Some participants, however, may have traveled from communities located outside the immediate vicinity. Under the sacred truce, or ekecheiria, the athletes, officials, and spectators were guaranteed safe passage to and from Olympia.”
Another important factor to note is that there were no such professional and specialized training institutes or organizations for the Greek athletes who participated in the events. Therefore, the athletes, more often than not, belonged to the wealthy class. Therefore it is fair to say that the Greek Olympics had been an event sponsored by the rich and participated by the rich. Finley and Pleket (1976) write, “The athletes of the 26th Olympiad probably came from the wealthy class, since only the wealthy would have had the finances and time to train and to travel to Olympia. Although formal training regimens for the Games became standard in later times, the athletes participating in the Games of 676 BC most likely trained and prepared for the Games on their own. They had no specialized coaches or trainers, and training facilities such as the gymnasium and the palaestra were not developed until the early 6th century BC.”
Yet another important factor to note is the fact the being rich had not been the only aspect common amongst the athletes. As Finley and Pleket (1976) write, “It is clear that athletes had to meet certain criteria in order to participate. A participant had to be male, had to be born of Greek parents, could have no criminal record, and had to be officially registered as a citizen of his native city-state. This ruled out the participation of slaves.”
The available data suggests that instead of having a team organize, finance and manage the whole event, only one male had been in charge to perform the affairs of the umpire and referee. This man had also been responsible for the finances of the event. Douskou (1982) asserts, “Until the 584 BC Games, one hellanodike (official and referee) was in charge of organizing and refereeing the Games. This individual was usually very wealthy and influential. It seems hard to believe that one person could have handled all the administrative aspects of the Games, but we simply lack plausible data to the contrary. The cost of financing the Games of 676 BC most likely was borne by the local hellanodike. There is no evidence to suggest that the spectators of the ancient Games were ever charged an admissions fee.”
Very little information is available about the spectators of the game. The data available suggests that the Greeks had been very enthusiastic about the Olympics and used to consistently bet on the games. Finley and Pleket (1976) write, “Most of the spectators drawn to the Games of 676 BC most likely came from the immediate communities throughout the Peloponnese. We have very little information regarding the number of spectators present at any of the ancient Games. Many historians believe that the Greeks were enthusiastic bettors and that betting among spectators was quite common at such festivals as the ancient Olympics.”
Athletes, Officials, and Spectators in Modern Sports
In most cases, the coaching and training facilities for modern athletes are extremely strict the same can be articulated for the contests between teams representing the not only their countries, at the international level, but also local college and state teams. Similarly, coaching these athletes can be both an honorary service, as well as, a highly paid service. Properly trained grounds men exist to take due care of the sporting and training facilities (Funk Gary 1991).
The selection of players does not depend on his/her economic well-being but on the hard work and exceptional talent one possesses. In some sporting organizations selection practice is significantly modified by placing the selection of the teams in the hands of a “selection committee.” This division of responsibility gives the impression to work extremely well almost on all the places it has been tried. There is wide-spread system dedicated to focusing and improving on the technique of the concerned sport, for the growth and development of a particular team is anticipated to endure by enhancing their playing techniques (Funk Gary 1991).
The extremely complicated task of implementing the regulations before-during-after a particular sporting event falls to a competent organization being run be professional workforce. In most cases, the primary function for these organizations is that they functions as not only the police officer but also the advocate and promoter of the concerned sports (Funk Gary 1991).
It primary function in to keep the venture moral and principled by consistently modifying the guide of individual players as well as the coaches and, simultaneously, play an essential role in making millions and millions of dollars for its shareholders, first and foremost, by selling television broadcast rights (Funk Gary 1991).
Fans and spectators are the lifeblood of any sport being played today. They form a vital element for commercial accomplishment. However, some fans take their loyalty and attachment to their games too far, tarnishing weddings and careers and crossing the line into disorder and destruction (Funk Gary 1991).
The Victors and Rewards in Ancient Greece
The prices for the ancient Greeks had not been all that eye-catching. Here it is important to note that the victors were treated as gods and heroes. This in itself was considered an award by the athletes. However, those who failed brought upon themselves extreme disgrace. As Finley and Pleket (1976) write, “The prize at Olympia became the crown of the wild olive in 752 BC. The olive branches were cut from a sacred tree in Olympia and were presented as prizes to the victor. In addition to receiving the olive wreath, the victor also had ribbons of red wool tied around his head, feet, and hands. There were no second- or third-place awards. The ancient Greeks worshipped success and victory alone brought glory and prestige to the winner. Participation for its own sake was no virtue, and defeat brought undying shame to the athletes.”
However, some researchers have asserted that no rewards had been given to the victors of the Olympics. Young (1984) writes, “There is no conclusive evidence of additional rewards granted to Olympic victors by the organizers or by their city-states during the period of time.” On the other hand, other researchers assert and give evidence that high amounts of money had been given to those who won the event. “One of the things we’ll hear argued about the modern Olympic Games is the question of amateurism (and professionalism) of athletes. This was not a concern of the Greeks since ancient athletes regularly received prizes worth substantial amounts of money. In fact, the word athlete is an ancient Greek word that means ‘one who competes for a prize’ and was related to two other Greek words, athlos meaning ‘contest’ and athlon meaning ‘prize.’ Material awards were routinely given as prizes (more info) at most of the athletic festival sites all over the Greek world. During the 8th, 7th, and 6th centuries BC, dozens of athletic events were established as parts of religious festivals honoring heroes, gods, or even victorious battles. Athletes who won at any of these Pan-Hellenic games could be assured of great wealth when they returned home. According to the Roman author Plutarch, an Olympic victor who was a citizen of Athens could expect to receive in the year 600 BC a cash award of 500 drachmai, a literal fortune. An Isthmian victor would receive 100 drachmai. From an Athenian inscription of the 5th century BC, we learn that Athenian Olympic victors received a free meal in the City Hall every day for the rest of their lives, a kind of early pension plan. Later, in the Hellenistic and Roman periods, pensions for athletes became more formalized and could actually be bought and sold.
This evidence suggests that there were no amateur athletes in ancient Greece, but there were no professional athletes either, for there was no distinction between the two categories, all were simply athletes. The concept of “amateur athletics,” developed in the 19th century AD, would have been very foreign to the ancient Greeks since the winning of a valuable or prestigious prize was an important part of being an athlete. (Taken from: http://www.museum.upenn.edu).”
The Victors and Rewards in Modern Sports
Highly famous players and sports celebrates are a competitive test for corporations, sponsoring sporting events to gain exposure, and associations, managing the event. This is because they create status, success, along with millions of dollars for not only their sponsors but also their associations. The restrictions of lawful and moral behavior are hard for numerous people concerned in the recruiting procedures (Byers Walter, with Charles Hammer 1995).
As major sporting associations and sponsors pick up the pace in their pursuit for money and success, they carry on wrestling with the satire that position at the center of their all sporting activities: most of the outstanding athletes are poverty-stricken gold mines. Their accomplishments produce millions of dollars in profits for the associations they act for, nevertheless they themselves are given nothing more than the reimbursement that come with their “athletic scholarships (Byers Walter, with Charles Hammer 1995).”
Supporters of the present system assert that those advantages are more than adequate payment for the services that a participant gives. Critics contradict that thousands of athletes have no significant chance to make an honest living for the reason that of the overwhelming demands positioned on them to make sports their primary, and only, priority (Byers Walter, with Charles Hammer 1995).
The commercialization of sports throughout the world burst out in the 1990s, with Nike as well as other athletic footwear companies directing the rush up the pile of money. Byers Walter and Charles Hammer (1995) describe the present scenario when they write, “In a volatile world where fashion rules and styles change frequently, the quest for teen dollars is tough and competitive. Shoe companies are learning that only the stars with the highest profiles can help their bottom line. In addition to Jordan, Nike counts Phoenix Suns forward Charles Barkley, Utah Jazz guard John Stockton, and Minnesota Timberwolves center Kevin Garnett in its camp. Reebok shoes are endorsed by Los Angeles Lakers center Shaquille O’Neal and Philadelphia 76 ers, guard Allen Iverson. Adidas signed Toronto Raptors forward Tracy McGrady before he had played in a single professional game. The six-year agreement could pay him as much as $12 million, the most lucrative endorsement deal ever for a player who entered the NBA directly out of high school without attending college. Fila, an Italian company, signed Detroit Pistons star Grant Hill as its principal spokesman and watched footwear sales more than double. “The Hill” is Fila’s fastest-selling product ever.”
Similarly, Horowitz (1997) in his study gives a detailed analysis of how corporations are exploiting the athletes. “Endorsement money flows to athletes in less visible sports as well. The swimwear company Speedo outfitted thirty divers, swimmers, and beach volleyballers at the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta. In 1996, IBM signed an athlete for the first time, pro-golfer Phil Mickelson, to endorse its hardware products. Drag racer Kristen Powell, known as the world’s fastest teenager, signed with Reebok in 1997. American soccer stars Eric Wynalda and Alexi Lalas are under contract to Reebok and Adidas, respectively, and Mia Hamm, the mainstay of the women’s national team, endorses Pert Plus shampoo, Power Bars, Pepsi, and Earth Grains cereal. The Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA), which began play in 1997, has attracted a host of sponsors, including Sears and Lee Jeans, and corporate sponsorship of women’s sports in the United States soared from $285 million in 1992 to $600 million in 1997.”
It is clear that in the modern world of sporting, “corporate sponsors are finding ways to spend their money in the corners of the sports world where the amateurs compete too. Youth sports leagues, which always operate on slim budgets, have offered sponsors access to the millions of children and parents who participate in their games in exchange for operating revenue. Rawlings Sporting Goods, Lever Brothers, Sunkist, and Quaker Oats are among the many consumer goods companies that have signed on. Their goal is to create loyalty to their products early in the lives of the young athletes in the hope that that loyalty will endure for a lifetime. Commercial sponsorship in youth leagues is not a new phenomenon. When Little League Baseball launched its first season in 1939, a pretzel company, a lumber yard, and a dairy in Pennsylvania each paid $30 to place their names on team uniforms. That quaint practice, which is still common, has been expanded to include sophisticated and targeted mailings to the upper-middle-class, affluent families that participate most heavily in youth sports leagues (Johnson 1998: A1).”
The role of women in ancient Greece
Women were not allowed to participate in the main events. However, data suggests that women used to participate in separate events, quite trivial in popularity, along with males. David Gilman Romano writes, “Along with the athletic contests held at ancient Olympia, there was a separate festival in honor of Hera (the wife of Zeus). This festival included foot races for unmarried girls. Although it is not known how old the festival was, it may have been almost as old as the festival for boys and men .little is known about this festival other than what Pausanias, a 2nd century AD Greek traveler, tells us. He mentions it in his description of the Temple of Hera in the Sanctuary of Zeus (model, courtesy of British Museum, shown above and plan shown below), and says that it was organized and supervised by a committee of 16 women from the cities of Elis. The festival took place every four years, when a new peplos was woven and presented to Hera inside her temple (http://www.museum.upenn.edu).”
It is interesting to note that married women were at a disadvantage in a number of ways. They were allowed to neither watch the main event nor participate in the side events. The data available suggests that only unmarried women could perform such endeavors. David Gilman Romano writes, “Unmarried girls had a number of advantages at Olympia. They not only had their own athletic contests of the Hera festival in which to participate, but they were also allowed to watch the men’s and boys’ contests of the festival of Zeus. Married women, on the other hand, were not allowed to participate in the athletic contests of the Hera festival, and were barred on penalty of death from the Sanctuary of Zeus on the days of the athletic competition for boys and men (http://www.museum.upenn.edu).”
The role of women in Modern Sports
In the preceding 50 years, not only the growth in the numbers of girls’ and women’s sports programs has been spectacular but also the increasing number of female participation has been noteworthy. In the center of that development, female athletes continue to confront sexual persecution, inferior salaries, as well as resistance to their presence on the playing ground (Caryer Lee 1996).
Over the years, the world of women’s sports extended to comprise softball, Olympic competition, golf, tennis, as well as, many other sports. On the other hand, any young woman like Billie Jean Moffitt who has made a pledge to do extremely well in athletics is considered to be strange, and most of the people all over the world carry on to cling to the belief system that females are emotionally, physically, as well as, mentally unsuitable for the rigors of ice hockey, long-distance running, baseball, as well as, other physically demanding sports (Caryer Lee 1996).
The politics in the Olympic Games in Ancient Greece
The people who had gathered to watch the games did not congregate to simply watch and enjoy the event. The Greek Olympics had been an event that allowed people from the wealthy class to participate ponder on different political matters, at the same time as, enjoying the game. David Gilman Romano writes, “The celebration of the Olympic Games in antiquity was an occasion for citizens of scattered Greek city-states to assemble. At the Games they discussed important political issues, celebrated common military victories and even formed political and military alliances (Taken from: http://www.museum.upenn.edu).”
It is interesting to note that even is that era, political discussions sometimes turned into minor conflicts, and other times into major conflicts. Whether this was a deliberate attempt from one party to thwart their opposition is unknown, David Gilman Romano writes, “But the Games were not only a forum in which to discuss political events; they were also the cause of political conflict (Taken from: http://www.museum.upenn.edu).”
The games held in Olympia had several advantages for the elite residing in this region. As the games progressed, the wealthy were able to gain not only political influence but also enhance social and economic progress. David Gilman Romano writes, “Control of the Sanctuary and the Games brought with it prestige, economic advantages and, most importantly, political influence. As early as the 7th century BC we hear of disputes over the control of the Sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia between the city of Elis (30 miles to the north) and the small neighboring town of Pisa.”
Many battles had been fought to gain control over the place. All the concerned powers that be understood the value and importance of Olympia and its sanctuaries. Many writers and poets of Greeks had written about these battles in their works and numerous modern scholars have cited them in their writings. David Gilman Romano writes about one such Greek writer Pausanias, according to whom, “In 668 BC, the powerful tyrant of Argos (named Pheidon) was asked by the town of Pisa to capture the Sanctuary of Zeus from the city-state of Elis. Pheidon, with his army of well-trained hoplites (armed soldiers), marched across the Peloponnesos, secured the Sanctuary for the town of Pisa, and personally presided over the conduct of the games. But Pisa’s control of the Sanctuary was brief: by the next year Elis had regained control.”
Politics in Modern Sports
Jacques Rogge gives an excellent account of the presence of politics in modern sports. He writes, “In the 1970s, the United States and China drew closer to each other by playing table tennis. During the 2000 Games in Sydney, North and South Korea marched together behind one flag and even wore the same uniform during the opening ceremony of the 2002 Winter Games — a feat that remains difficult to achieve outside the sports arena. Every day, sports competitions in refugee camps around the world help differing groups of people, once at war with each other, begin to learn how to coexist peacefully. Sport and Peace Roundtables, which the JOG sponsors in regions of conflict, bring sports organizations together where political organizations cannot. The hope is that if youth can learn to respect each other on the field of play, they will transfer this sentiment to other elements of their daily lives. Sport alone cannot change the world, but it can foster bonds between people where before nothing but animosity existed. The common experience of playing sports can begin to replace ignorance with communication and understanding.”
He further writes, “While the Games highlight the thrill of participation and the glory of victory; they also demonstrate the core Olympic values: fair play, respect for others, the balance between a strong body and mind, and the joy of taking part in the pursuit of excellence. Sport, properly taught, instills important social values and plays an important role in teaching values to youth, enabling them to improve themselves and their community. Boiled down to their essence, the Olympic values are about respect: respect for universally-accepted rules, oneself, and others. In today’s world, these values are increasingly relevant.”
Furthermore, sports carry on to be a political and religious instrument being used by various groups to defend and promote their visions upon the crazy sporting fans all over the world. The inclusion of both politics and religion can turn out to be an overpowering and devastating force in the lives of a large number of athletes, particularly females who have to revert back to taking care of their family (Caryer Lee 1996).
Sporting personal who turn out to be the voices of the political and religious groups position themselves at grave danger of harm and even death. The past and present political forces in sports as well as society have demanded such dangerous sacrifices all through human history (Caryer Lee 1996).
In the last fifty years of the 20th century, the extensive and widespread activity of sports has assumed an enormously high-flying role in the global society. There will be only a handful people in the global village who have not been influenced in some manner by the overpowering augment in professional team franchises and leagues, televised sporting events, programs for girls and women, media interest, sports betting, youth sports competitions, as well as, high-profile athletes along with coaches who command multi-million-dollar salaries. As spectators or participants, or both, millions upon millions of spectators, all over the world, view sports as the most vital, characterizing occupation of their lives.
In its various aspects, the sports world both mirrors and controls the larger society of which it is a fraction. Sports are at the present deeply tangled with our schools, colleges, as well as universities, our domestic lives, our place of work, our social system, as well as our money-making and political structures. Sports even have a dwelling in our religious organizations and in the confidential, daydream lives of individuals. Sports are respected by people from all walks of human life, and they can present the prospect to construct bridges amid young and old, black and white, rich and poor, as well as, male and female. And for the reason that the sports world is associated to so many organizations and traditions, it is an outstanding place to learn the complex and often influential social forces that generate storms.
This paper examined the influence of Ancient Greek Olympics on Modern Sports. The paper discusses how similar patterns have developed in the sports world, with a spotlight on how it has influenced both the individuals as well as the institutions. The paper presents the evolution of sports over time to the present. Just like the Greek love affair with Olympics increased with time, the modern day fanaticism with sports reveals no sign of lessening. All of the Greek influences in sports discussed in this paper have existed for several decades, and there is practically no probability that any of them will be altered. Taking the above information as it foundation, certain simplifications can be highlighted:
Religion has been a source of inspiration for both the Greeks and the modern athletes. However, it should be noted that while Greeks used to hold their Olympics to celebrate their gods and goddesses, modern athletes celebrate their faith after they achieve success
The Olympics were held in only one city, which was Olympia. Whereas modern sports are not in any way bounded by location. That is to day, while specific locations in terms of grounds are used to carry out sporting activities, sporting events are not limited to one particular city, state, country or continent.
The Greeks used to play only a limited number of games, while modern day sporting events are wide-ranging. However, the theme characterizing ancient Greek Olympics and modern sports are more or less the same, that is to say, cut-throat competition, honor, money, dignity, fair play, fame and glory.
The influence of the Greek athletes and sports officials on modern sports is non-existent. The results of the research indicate that Greek athletes had been highly amateurish in their approach towards the games they played. Neither did nay professional coaching institution exist to train the keen and enthusiastic nor were the women allowed to compete in the main events. Furthermore, the approach to organizing the event is completely in contrast to the organization and management of sports today. Therefore, one can safely assert that the Greek athletes and sports officials failed to influence modern sports.
The spectators and fans of both ancient Greece and modern world are very much similar. Zealous and undying passion and love for sports can be observed in both the subjects. Furthermore, passion for sports, amongst both Greeks had risen gradually, which is quite identical for the modern-day sports fans.
The rewards for the Greeks who achieved success are unknown as many researchers have given contradicting statements. But it is important to note, nonetheless, that even if rewards were not given to the Greeks then too, one can find similar situations in the modern-day sports. Most of the developing countries today do not pay their coaches and their athletes as much as the developed countries do. However, it is difficult to assert whether such actions of the modern-day sports organizations, functioning in the third world, have been influenced by the ancient Greeks.
While many researchers have asserted that women were not allowed to participate in the main event, it is important to note that women have only succeeded in the last fifty years or so in entering the sports stage in a significant way. Therefore, once again, while similarities exist between the two variables, it is difficult to assert whether such actions of deliberating keeping women away from sports have been influenced by the ancient Greeks.
Politics existed both in the ancient Greece Olympics as well as in modern day sports: politics that would result in arguments, politics that would result in conflict, politics that would result in physical clashes and character bashing is common both in modern sports as well as in Greek Olympics.
In the end one can safely conclude that while many similarities and differences exist between the Ancient Greek Olympics and modern day sports, it is difficult to determine whether the present day activities are a direct result of the activities that took place more than 2000 years ago.
In addition to that, it is important to note that in Ancient Greek Olympics, as well as, in Modern Day Sporting activities, games and sports form an important phase of the societal process as it is carried on with unparallel zeal and enthusiasm. They are valued partially for their physical consequence upon youth, and even more for their entertaining inspirations. This assessment is an issue rather of practice than of hypothesis. Moderately little acknowledgment has as yet been given to the influence of Greeks on modern sports by both researchers and academia. The reasons for which are not surprising, not in the least bit.
Byers Walter, with Charles Hammer. (1995). Unsportsmanlike Conduct: Exploiting College Athletes. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press
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David Gilman Romano. The real story of the ancient Olympic Games. Taken from: http://www.museum.upenn.edu
Douskou, I. (Ed.). (1982). The Olympic Games in ancient Greece. Athens: Ekdotike Athenon.
Finley, M.I., & Pleket, H.W. (1976). The Olympic Games: The first thousand years. London: Chatto & Windus.
Funk Gary. (1991) Major Violation: The Unbalanced Priorities of Athletics and Academics. Champaign, Ill.: Leisure Press.
Heather E. Morrow. (2004). The Wide World of Sports Is Getting Wider: A Look at Drafting Foreign Players into U.S. Professional Sports. Houston Journal of International Law, Vol. 26.
Jacques Rogge. Olympian efforts: how ancient Games shape the modern world. Taken from: www.highbeam.com
Mallwitz, A. (1972). Olympia und seine Bauten [Olympia and its structures]. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
Paul Cartledge. (2000). Olympic self-sacrifice. (Olympics in Ancient Greece). History Today
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Strauss Gary, Thor Valdmanis, and Bruce Horowitz. (1997) Optimism Reflected in Dazzling Deals. USA Today
Steven R. Bray, Marc V. Jones and Stephanie Owen. (2002). The Influence of Competition Location on Athletes’ Psychological States. Journal of Sport Behavior. Volume: 25. Issue: 3.
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Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
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Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more