Job Analysis and Performance Appraisal Methods: Practical Applications
My current circumstances could be grooming me for a totally different profession but deep inside, I have always admired the work journalists do. I particularly like how news reporters go out to the field, gather real time information, and interact with newsmakers. In addition to enjoying themselves, these ladies and gentlemen play a very significant role in the creation of a more open and just society. For this assignment, I will address a number of issues with regard to the job I would be interested in pursuing, i.e. news reporting.
Job analysis according to Werner, Schuler, and Jackson (2010) is essentially “a systematic process of describing and recording information about job behaviors, activities, and worker specifications” (p. 122). In that regard therefore, a job analysis seeks to generate information regarding both those performing the job and the job itself. It is a process that seeks to not only understand but also describe what individuals do at work. In basic terms, job analysis information could be collected using a variety of methods.
In seeking to collect information relating to the job I selected earlier on in this text, I made use of the observation method. This particular method of job analysis in the opinion of Mathis and Jackson (2012) involves the observation of the person undertaking the job in question and taking notes on not only the duties but also the tasks performed. The other job analysis methods as the authors further point out include but they are not limited to the utilization of questionnaires and interviews. For this particular task, I observed news reporters both on television and in the field as they went about their daily routines. In this case, I largely concerned myself with the tasks they were performing and the kinds of skills they were making use of. Below are the notes I took.
Job Title: News Reporter
1. Covering events such as talent shows, national celebrations, football matches and other sporting events, etc.
2. Attending press conferences
3. Interviewing people in an attempt to collect relevant information and seek clarification regarding certain issues.
4. Investigating and developing stories out of happenings like scandals, crimes, etc.
5. Researching topics that could interest or entertain viewers (or readers when it comes to print journalism).
Key Skills Required
1. News-gathering expertise
2. Broad knowledge of local, national, as well as global issues
3. Ability to communicate clearly in both the spoken word and in writing
4. Computer literate
Personal Attributes Required
2. Ability to work under pressure
3. Excellent memory
4. A good sense of humor would help
5. Confidence and self-motivation
Job Analysis: Its Utilization Within an Organization
The job analysis I develop above could come in handy in the development of a job description and specification — key human resource objectives. A job description seeks to highlight a given position’s responsibilities, tasks, as well as working conditions. On the other hand, a job specification attempts to define the specific characteristics that employees need to have to perform the job efficiently. In an organizational setting, the above job analysis could also be used to formulate performance standards. It is also important to note that the organization could use the information it derives from the job analysis for job enrichment and combination, as well as for training purposes.
An Evaluation of the Reliability and Validity of My Job Analysis
From the onset, it should be noted that the method of job analysis I chose to make use of is relatively simple and straightforward. Unlike the other methods such as questionnaires, the observation method does not involve the tedious task of aggregating the information collected from employees. It should however be noted that in some instances, the results produced courtesy of this method may not be genuine. This is more so the case given that due to the fact that different individuals observe and interpret things differently, there is a likelihood of personal bias creeping in. Further, in the words of Mathis and Jackson (2012), “use of the observation method is limited because many jobs do not have complete and easily observed job duties or job cycles” (p. 130). Thus according to the authors, this particular method of job analysis is most appropriate for those jobs that happen to be repetitive. It is also important to note that this particular approach to job analysis could have been disruptive were I to conduct the same on-site. As a matter of fact, it could affect the way a news reporter does his or her work and by extension, the validity of the information gathered in the job analysis undertaking. It should also be noted that there are some cognitive activities I may have missed by virtue of making use of this job analysis method. The job analysis results could also have been tainted by journalists who were completing tasks inappropriately.
Performance appraisals in basic terms seek to assess the performance of an individual or group of individuals in a systematic way. In addition to helping in work performance assessment, performance appraisal also comes in handy in the identification of areas requiring improvement. There are various performance appraisal methods that could be applied to my chosen job.
Performance Appraisal Methods that Could be Applied to My Chosen Job
Some of the performance appraisal methods that could be applied to my chosen job include but they are not limited to the behavioral checklist method, the essay method, and the critical incident method. When it comes to the behavioral checklist method, the rater as Snell and Bohlander (2011) note is required to check the statements (presented in a list format) that he or she is convinced represent the employee’s behavior or performance. In our scenario, I could therefore prepare questions based on YES or NO answers. The said questions should be structured in a way that helps in the evaluation of the behavior or performance of the news reporter. One key advantage of this method is its ease of administration, especially given that specialized training is not required on the part of the rater. The method is also cost effective. However, it should be noted that in addition to being prone to rater bias, this method does not permit the rater to offer substantive comments.
The essay method on the other hand calls upon the rater to develop a statement that in his or her own opinion describes the individual being appraised (Snell and Bohlander, 2011). In this case, I would be required to figure out the weaknesses and strength of the news reporter and develop an essay that describes my findings. Unlike the behavioral checklist method, this appraisal method permits the rater to give substantive comments thus effectively closing any information gaps. However, this method is largely dependent on some specific abilities of a rater, i.e. memory and communication/writing skills.
Lastly, we have the critical incident method which concerns itself with the identification and description of instances where the behavior of an employee was inappropriate or uncommonly good. A critical incident according to Snell and Bohlander (2011) is “an unusual event that denotes superior or inferior employee performance in some part of the job” (p. 367). In our case, I would describe specific incidences where the reporter’s performance of a specific task was particularly outstanding as well as specific instances where the reporter’s performance was way below average. By basing evaluations on actual job performances and behaviors, this particular appraisal method significantly reduces the probability of bias. However, this method of appraisal could result in a level of supervision seen as being overly close.
In conclusion, it should be noted that before selecting a job analysis method of a performance appraisal approach, human resource professionals in an organizational setting must take into consideration a number of things. These include but they are not limited to costs involved and the time limits. Further, the most appropriate job analysis or appraisal method is also largely dependent on the nature and structure of the concerned organization.
Mathis, R.M. & Jackson, J.H. (2010). Human Resource Management (13th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Snell, S.A. & Bohlander, G.W. (2011). Managing Human Resources (16th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Werner, S., Schuler, R.S. & Jackson, S.E. (2012). Human Resource Management (11th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more