Public Sector Accountability
In the recent years the top management of public sector organizations has come to realize that they are required to be eventually accountability to the community in which they exist. Moreover, presently, it is pertinent for this accountability to be exercised in a manner that supports rather than stalls the efficient management of the agency. The urgency for greater public sector accountability perceptibly arise from the actuality that most agencies have a defined mission and objectives which are actualized in programs; to put it differently they exist and are given resources so as to provide value to the community in particular ways. The community in its part have a right to be assured that the schemes and programs on which their monies are allocated are properly for the purpose it is intended, and those programs function in an efficient and fruitful manner, provide value for money, and that supreme standards of ethics are upheld by the personnel who have been assigned with managing them. (Contemporary Issues in Public Sector Accountability)
The attention towards accountability within public sector reforms has been defined as a need to make pubic sector personnel increasingly accountable for their decisions and activities. In greater details it implies (i) that certain group of recipients attains information about the results of decisions made by identified individuals who constitute the source decision makers. (ii) that those sources can be made to clarify regarding their decisions (iii) and finally that certain embargo can be imposed in case the explanations are found to be unacceptable. Within Public Sector Organizations or PSOs, accountability is often that of the individual for decisions made. In case where accountability runs external to the organization to other recipients, accountability is frequently combined to the level of the entire organization. In this case the entire organization is by some means looked upon as accountable for the actions of its workforce. Also in this instance, individual senior staff might be held accountable by the external recipients. (Information Systems for Public Sector Management: Defining Accountability)
II. Increased Demand for PSA:
In the current economic scenario, investors are requiring good corporate governance which is corruption free among organizations and with public units. An OECD-World Bank combine investor task force with investors with more than $3 trillion of assets suggests to enterprises who make emerging markets indexes must regard corporate governance as a significant part of their index. They are even subjected to investigations from the civil society and also non-governmental organizations. Citizens are also demanding more and more from their government thereby leading to an increase in political competition to serve the public better. The administrators who are able to win faith and sustain integrity have an increased likelihood to survive the electoral process, the enhanced reason for government to extend the public with broader and easy access information in an opportune manner for increased accountability. With the rise in public scrutiny, the costs to public officials to take decisions which benefit their private interests will even increase, building a more competent and trustworthy government. (Strengthening Public Scrutiny and Government Accountability Reformation)
Through legislation, standards of accountability are established and accountability is determined. This is achieved by (i) clearly designing accountabilities for chief executives subject to Public Service Act, 1999 and the Financial Management and Accountability Act, 1997 for mainstream establishments. (ii) dividing responsibility to independent agency head or board of directors (iii) stressing standards of ethical behavior and probity mainly through to the Public Service Act and (iii) lining up as far as practicable, financial and accountability arrangements for Government Business Enterprises with those within the private sector. (Transparency and Ethical Governance: Promoting Accountability in Australia)
The Auditor General is a suitably experienced independent statutory officer appointed by the Governor under the Financial Administration Audit Act or FAAA 1985 holding office till retirement, other than in the event of suspension by the Governor and dismissed from service by a resolution of both Houses of Parliament. Auditor General is the Accountable Officer and Chief Executive Officer of the Office of the Auditor General which is a department of the public service of the state which comes under the Public Sector Management Act, 1994. As regards Accountable Officer, the Auditor is enshrined to perform responsibilities under the FAAA. Being the Chief Executive Officer, the Auditor General is also liable for several staffing functions under the Public Sector Management Act, 1994. (the Audit Office Today)
The first office of the Auditor General of Western Australia dates back to the initial months of the Swan River colony in 1829. Captain Stirling who was posted as the Lieutenant Governor of the colony, was traveling in the ship Parmelia with the first collection of colonists who voyaged from England in February in that year to make the west coast of New Holland their home. The office of the Auditor General is established akin to all other officers under special legislation. The legislation implies that independent officers may or may not report to the Parliament in relation to their legislated function and/or conduct quasi-judicial responsibilities which are independently held of Ministerial control. (Vouched for and Carried to Account: A History of the Western Australian Audit Office 1829-2004)
The enactment of the Whistleblower Protection Act was done in the year 1889 in part as the Office of the Special Counsel or OSC was considered to be incompetent. During that period OSC had not brought to the notice of the Merit Systems Protection Board since 1979 on behalf of a whistleblower. Whistleblowers complained the Governmental Affairs Committee that they considered the OSC as an antagonist, instead of being an ally, and recommended the Committee for closure of the office for good. However, the Committee preferred to strengthen the office, thereby giving a further chance to act insistently on behalf of the whistleblowers. The Whistleblower Protection Act provided the OSC a new charter to “protect employees, especially whistleblowers, from prohibited personnel practices” and to “act in the interest of employees” who look forward for its assistance. (S.Rpt.103-358 Governmental Affairs Committee Aug. 23, 1994)
The Whistleblower Protection Act offered whistleblowers substantial new job safeguards which were not available in the past. To start with the act established an easier and justified norm for whistleblowers in proving retaliation by their agencies. Secondly, it empowered the privilege, for the first time, to appeal their own cases to the Merit Systems Protection Board. Thirdly the Act increased the independence of the OSC and necessitated OSC to operate in the interest of the whistleblowers. Lastly, the Act gave whistleblowers more procedural safeguards and vital guarantees of confidentiality. (S.Rpt.103-358 Governmental Affairs Committee Aug. 23, 1994)
III. Accountability Excesses
In order to adapt to the changing world economy, Australia is required to perform a number of things in a proper manner. The continent is required to have a robust and transparent regulatory regime. The physical and intellectual infrastructure is required to be of the highest quality. The public sector has an important role to play in all these spheres. However, the public sector can only contribute to them in case it is capable to respond rapidly, flexible and resolutely to the continuous demands of the international competition. (Setting the Course: Integrating Conformance with Performance)
Australia has had immense success in privatization at the Federal Level also. Partial as well as complete privatization has taken place in Australia. Instances of successful privatization can be found in Commonwealth Bank, Qantas and Telstra. As a matter of fact, when Telstra was up for privatization in 1997, this was regarded as the largest IPO in the world. The latest company in Australia for privatization is the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service. The privatization exercise at the state level has immense success. Privatization at the local level has also taken place in Australia the companies up for sale at the local level have included the sale of municipal works like garbage collection services, golf courses, power plants, waste water treatment plants, airports, utility companies like electricity, gas, parking facilities, sewer systems and also sporting arenas. (Privatization in the United States and Australia: A Comparative Analysis of the Modern Movement in Corrections)
In the recent years the top management of public sector organizations has come to realize that they are required to be eventually accountability to the community in which they exist. Moreover, presently, it is pertinent for this accountability to be exercised in a manner that supports rather than stalls the efficient management of the agency. In the current economic scenario, investors are requiring good corporate governance which is corruption free among organizations and with public units. Through legislation, standards of accountability are established and accountability is determined. In order to adapt to the changing world economy, Australia is required to perform a number of things in a proper manner.
Heeks, Richard. 1998. “Information Systems for Public Sector Management: Defining Accountability.” Institute for Development Policy and Management. July. Retrieved at http://idpm.man.ac.uk/publications/wp/igov/igov_wp01.pdf. Accessed on 30 May, 2005
Lamond, Jeff. “Transparency and Ethical Governance: Promoting Accountability in Australia” Australian Public Service Commission. Retrieved at http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/EROPA/UNPAN014284.pdf. Accessed on 30 May, 2005
Pearson Des. 2000. “Contemporary Issues in Public Sector Accountability: New Challenges for Accountability.” 22 January. Retrieved at http://www.audit.wa.gov.au/pubs/ipaa23022000.html. Accessed on 30 May, 2005
Setting the Course: Integrating Conformance with Performance.” 2000. September, 7. Retrieved at http://www.ag.gov.au/agd/WWW/attorneygeneralHome.nsf/Page/Speeches_2000_Speeches_Setting_the_Course:_Integrating_Conformance_with_PerformanceAccessed on 30 May, 2005
Sozzani, Joseph “Privatization in the United States and Australia: A Comparative Analysis of the Modern Movement in Corrections.” Retrieved at http://www.bond.edu.au/law/blr/vol13-1/Sozzani.pdf. Accessed on 30 May, 2005
S.Rpt.103-358 Governmental Affairs Committee” 1994. August, 23. Retrieved at http://members.tripod.com/whistle20/sr103-358excerpts.htm. Accessed on 30 May, 2005
The Audit Office Today.” Retrieved at http://www.audit.wa.gov.au/insideoag/. Accessed on 30 May, 2005
Vouched for and Carried to Account: A History of the Western Australian Audit Office 1829-2004.” Retrieved at http://www.audit.wa.gov.au/history/index.html. Accessed on 30 May, 2005
Wongchanglaw, Somphon. 2002. “Strengthening Public Scrutiny and Government Accountability Reformation.” Retrieved at http://www.thinkcentreasia.org/documents/Strengthening%20public%20scrutiny.html. Accessed on 30 May, 2005
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more