Management Systems for Cross-Border Businesses

Management Systems for Cross-Border Businesses

Sketch of approach

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Management Systems for Cross-Border Businesses
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

The scope of the current endeavor is that of assessing the need and applicability of practical management systems in the administration of cross-border business operations. The first step in conducting this assessment is that of introducing the topic, materialized in a twofold direction — the need for the analysis within the modern day context and the definition of practical management systems.

The second step is represented by the analysis of the available literature, embodied at this level by articles in specialized journals. The journals represent a special means of data collection as they are characterized by two specific features — they are based on relevant and current data (information contained is often more current than that used in books, but less current than that used in magazines or internet articles); the data is peer reviewed and as such reliable.

As the review of the literature is completed, the future stage is represented by the analysis of the findings. Finally, the project comes to an end with a section on concluding remarks which restates the most important findings of the project.

2. Introduction

The contemporaneous business society is more dynamic than ever before. It has undergone a wide array of changes and is now able to present the economic agents with countless opportunities and threats. One specific generator of both opportunities and threats is represented by the ability to operate across-borders. This ability was generated by the intensifying forces of globalization, which allowed economic agents to transcend boundaries and launch operations in foreign regions as well. Two goals are generically followed with cross-border operations — the increase in the market onto which the company’s products are sold and the ability to operate in a means which is more efficient, due to cost efficiencies, resource abundance, technologic expertise and so on.

In this new context of international operations, the process of cross-border management appears as complex and this complexity is due to a wide array of issues, such as cultural, social or legal barriers and differences. In order to help economic agents overcome these challenges, numerous systems of practical management are devised. At a generic level, practical management is understood as the presentation of actions managers should implement in order to attain their pre-established objectives. Practical management draws on the theory of management, such as models, history and others such, and strives to apply these within the real life contexts, with as much practicality as possible.

3. Literature review

Leonard H. Friedman (2001) states that the managerial act is a highly complex process, in which the leaders have to fully comprehend the interactions between the various variables within the organization at the level of the structures, parts or units. And in the context of cross-border operations, this complexity further increases. The author, by reviewing the works of Gregory a. Daneke, argues that organizational systems are highly complicated and that it is tedious — if not impossible — to construct practical management systems.

This conclusion is based on the fact that practical management systems would be constructed on the principles of linearity. In other words, it would be assumed that certain events occur and influence the other variables in a specific manner. Nevertheless, linearity within the modern day context is impossible to attain and it stands for idealism within the business community as well as the theoretical community (Friedman, 2001).

A similar conclusion is presented by Lee Gardenswartz and Anita Rowe (1994) in their article about practical management within the health care sector. The two quote GE’s chief executive officer Tack Welch, who stated: “If you’re not confused, you don’t know what’s going on” (Gardenswartz and Rowe, 1994). This statement is the result of the numerous complexities within the business community, which make the modern day business environment difficult to foresee as well as intricate to manage. In spite of this realization nevertheless, Gardenswartz and Rowe believe that a crucial component of practical management systems is represented by the integration and management of diversity.

And the need to integrate diversity is increasing within the cross-border operations as both an internal need to ensure operational efficiency, communications and so on, but also as a necessity at the level of business ethics. The definition of business ethics is approached by numerous sources, yet a universally accepted meaning has yet to be devised. Susan B. Shurden, Juan Santandreu, Michael C. Shurden (2010) for instance look at business ethics through the lenses of general ethics and argue that these represent “a system of morals which guides the behavior of an individual when confronted with doing right or wrong” (Shurden, Santandreu and Shurden, 2010). On the other hand, Douglas B. Rasmussen and Douglas J. Den Uyl (2009) find that it is first important to understand the meaning of business as the united efforts of organizational agents to attain their value maximization objectives. George D. Chryssides and John H. Kaler (1993) then argue that business ethics is “simply ethics as it applies to business.”

Returning to Lee Gardenswartz and Anita Rowe (1994), the two believe that it is operationally and ethically necessary to integrate diversity. And in order to create a practical management system in dealing with diversity, they reveal the need to remove the following barriers: the costs of implementation, the fear of hiring underskilled and uneducated employees, the inadequate implementation of merits systems, discriminatory practices, distorted perception of progress, negligence of diversity, inertia or the fear of the changes diversity integration would generate within the entity.

As these barriers are eliminated, Gardenswartz and Rowe (1994) argue that the actual practical system of diversity is channeled onto three specific directions — the impacts of individual attitudes and beliefs on organizational processes and performances, the interface between employees and management and third, the organizational values, norms and policies. At a particular level, the following stages are proposed in the practical management of diversity:

Ensuring commitment at the executive level

Assessing the diagnose

Setting up the diversity task force

Solving the problems and the systematic issues

Developing training programs to raise awareness, knowledge and skill needs

Measuring and evaluation

Following up on the implementation and the progress (Gardenswartz and Rowe, 1994).

Cross-border management needs often arise when mergers and acquisitions are completed within the international arena. H. Donald Hopkins (2008) however argues that the success of these operations is often limited as the economic agents fail to adapt to the differences between the politics, economics and cultures of the two different regions. The author states that the success rates of the cross-border mergers and acquisitions can however increase if enough attention is placed on the strategic research and selection of the merger / acquisition, as well as the integration of the two parties in the aftermath of the merger / acquisition. “Cross-border mergers are frequently unsuccessful. However, care given to two elements seems to increase the chance for success. The first is strategy. Though the research on exactly what the best strategy actually is very limited, strategy does appear to matter” (Hopkins, 2008).

Other sources are however more punctual when it comes to practical models of cross-border management. The following lines pin point some notable opinions related to practical management in cross-border business operations:

Witold Nowinski (2006) states that it is essential to restructure the company in the aftermath of the merger / acquisition

Christoph Dorrenbacher (2007) argues that cross-border management ought to be based on solid and trustworthy relationships constructed by the owners and the managers. In other words, he emphasizes on relational management as opposed to strategic management.

Martha S. Peyton (2002) believes that the greatest challenge — and as such the greatest concern of cross-border management — is represented by the perception of risk and the administration of the risk involved in international operations.

4. Analysis and discussion

The modern day economic agents are presented with numerous challenges and opportunities, and cross-border operations represent sources of both opportunities as well as threats. In order to minimize the threats while maximizing the opportunities, economic agents look at the theory of management and administration. Under the umbrella of ethics, the most important practical model is based on the need to recognize, integrate and embrace diversity. Under a more strategic observation, emphasis falls on research, risk mitigation or strategic integration.

All of the models for practical management systems presented within the specialized literature are valid and this validity is constructed on the fact that they are based on numerous theories and academic research. Nevertheless, these practical systems can be divided into two categories, based on the sources used at their bases. In this order of ideas, the first category is represented by models based on general theory, which assume the existence and manifestation of certain variables within cross-border operations. The second category is represented by practical management models based on specific situations and contexts. Christoph Dorrenbacher for instance assesses cross-border management within a German company’s subsidiary in Hungary. Witold Nowinski discusses cross-border management in the context of the Polish market. This specifically means that the practical management models are either too generalist, either they are too specific. Subsequently, they cannot be implemented and succeed in all situations of cross-border business operations.

Based on this realization, the usefulness of devising practical management systems within the specialized literature is a dual one. On the one hand, these models are highly useful as they introduce the novice international manager to the elements which need to be taken into consideration upon engaging in cross-border management. On the other hand however, they are only limitedly useful as they do not apply in all circumstances. For instance, an economic agent in the United States looking to expand its operations in China or in Mexico would find little applicability of the practical management system devised by Christoph Dorrenbacher.

All in all then, the final finding is that the practical management systems within the specialized literature do represent a valid starting point, but that economic agents have to devise their own models which are customized to their own contexts and variables.

5. Conclusions

Within the modern day context of globalization and opening boundaries, economic agents are presented with the ability to launch cross-border operations. This ability is nevertheless a source of both opportunities as well as threats. In order to maximize the opportunities while in the same time minimizing the threats, the academic community devises a wide array of practical management systems which come to support managers in their international administration processes and decisions.

The specialized literature is filled with examples of practical models of cross-border management and these focus on the issues considered of importance for the authors. Leonard H. Friedman finds that international management is too complex to be integrated in a single model. Lee Gardenswartz and Anita Rowe focus on the need to integrate diversity; Witold Nowinski emphasizes the need for restructuring; Christoph Dorrenbacher strengthens the need for relational management, whereas Martha S. Peyton militates for risk management.

The discussion which was conducted as a result of the literature review indicated that the usefulness of practical management system models is a twofold one. First, this need exists and is given by its ability to introduce the novice manager to the complexities of international administration. Secondly however, the usefulness of the systems is decreased by their inability to apply to all real life contexts, situations in which the models have to be customized.


Chryssides, G.D., Kaler, J.H., 1993, an introduction to business ethics, 2nd edition, Cengage Learning EMEA

Dorrenbacher, C., 2007, Inside the transnational social sphere: cross-border management and owner relationship in a German subsidiary in Hungary, Journal for East European Management Studies, Vol. 12, No. 4

Friedman, L.H., 2001, Nonlinear dynamics and practical management: Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 46, No. 2

Gardenswartz, L., Rowe, a., 1994, Diversity management: practical application in a health car, Frontiers of Health Services Management, Vol. 11, No. 2

Hopkins, H.D., 2008, Cross-border mergers and acquisitions: do strategies or post-merger integration matter? International Management Review, Vol. 4, No.1

Nowinski, W., 2006, an assessment and forecast highlighting the importance of restructuring and integration in cross-border acquisitions in Poland, an analysis of M&a experts’ opinions, Journal for East European Management Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1

Peyton, M.S., 2002, Cross border capital flows — perspectives from a mixed asset portfolio investor, Journal of Real Estate Portfolio Management, Vol. 8, No.4

Rasmussen, D.B., Uyl, D.J.D., 2009, Making room for business ethics: rights as metanorms for market and moral values, Journal of Private Enterprise, Vol. 24, No. 2

Shurden, S.B., Santandreu, J., Shurden, M.C., 2010, How student perceptions of ethics can lead to future business behavior, Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, Vol. 13, No. 1

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essay GET A PERFECT SCORE!!! smile and order essay Buy Custom Essay

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.
  +1 718 717 2861           + 44 161 818 7126           [email protected]
  +1 718 717 2861         [email protected]