Midwifery care through labor and delivery lowers complication rates and reduces the likelihood of unnecessary cesarean sections.
The issue of the role of midwifery care in the reduction of delivery and labor complications is interesting form both a medical and historical perspective. The assertion that midwifery is helpful with delivery problems and the reduction of cesarean section needs to be understood against the background of the acceptance of the nurse — midwife.
It should be borne in mind that midwifery was established as a procedure for assisting the mother during birth long before modern scientific medicine and institutional nursing (Seaton, 2006). The history of the modern nursing-midwifery began with the establishment of the first certified American nurse-midwifery school. This school was founded in 1932, with the central aim of “â€¦incorporating the necessary medical training into midwifery’s traditional approach to pregnancy and labor” (Castlenovo, para. 4). This event was to lead to the formal acceptance and accreditation of the modern nurse-midwife into the fold of institutionalized and professional healthcare.
However, midwifery was initially seen as suspect and as a cause of increased infant mortality by the medical fraternity. As a result of this situation and perception there was a concerted effort from medical institutions and professionals to “eliminate traditional midwives” (Nurse-Midwifery in the United States and Its 1940s Expansionâ€¦)
While midwifery was criticized by the medical profession in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century’s it has become more accepted for a number of reasons. One of reasons for this these is the more holistic and care-orientated view of modern healthcare and medicine. In this context the nurse — midwife is seen as proving a care-centered approach to the problematics that surround birth and labor.
Modern medical and nursing theory therefore suggested that a more caring and involved approach that take an inclusive and holistic view of the patient is more appropriate than an approach that is centered on scientific premises and methods alone.
This theoretical view suggests that problematic aspects of birth, such as undergoing a cesarean section can be assisted and even reduced by the particular role of the midwife. This theoretical viewpoint is underscored by Shields, and Candib ( 2010) in their book entitled Women-Centered Care in Pregnancy and Childbirth. In this study they state that;
As technical advances become more complex, care has come to be increasingly controlled by, if not carried out by, specialist obstetricians. The benefits of this trend can be seriously challenged. It is inherently unwise, and perhaps unsafe, for women with normal pregnancies to be cared for by obstetric specialists, even if the required personnel were available. (Shields, and Candib, 2010, p. 461)
This view stresses the importance of the midwife and the role that she can play in reducing aspects and tensions may lead to problematic issues in childbirth. The above study also emphasizes that;
Midwives and general practitioners, on the other hand, are primarily oriented to the care of women with normal pregnancies, and are likely to have more detailed knowledge of the particular circumstances of individual women. The care that they can give to the majority of women whose pregnancies are not affected by any major illness or serious complication will often be more responsive their needs than that given by specialist obstetricians. (Shields, and Candib, 2010, p. 461)
We can refer to an earlier study in this regard, a Randomized, Controlled Trial of Nurse-Midwifery Care (1996). In this randomized test of midwifery programs in the 1990s it was found that the results “â€¦ clearly support the effectiveness of the pilot nurse-midwifery program and suggest that more extensive participation of midwives in the Canadian health care system is an appropriate use of health care dollars” (Harvey et al. 1996, p. 165). A study which questions the formal medical model of birth and suggests the important and often neglected role of the midwife is, Complicated pregnancy? find a midwife ( 2005). The study refers to a recent Swedish study published in the Journal of Perinatal Education which deals with the theory of midwifery care. Key aspects of this model include “â€¦protection of a woman’s individuality, promotion of a deep-rooted knowledge of childbirth, and support for a balance of the natural and medical perspectives” ( Star, 2005, p.23), the researchers determined that “â€¦both normal and high-risk pregnancies benefit from midwifery care” ( Star, 2005, p.23)
If we take the theoretical trajectory suggested by the above articles and relate it studies of requests for cesarean section, we find some interesting results. In a study entitled Elective Cesarean Section and Decision Making: A Critical Review of the Literature (2007) it was found that “Women’s preference for a cesarean section ( is) related to psychological factors, perceptions of safety, or in some countries, was influenced by cultural or social factors” (McCourt et al., 2007, p. 65). Furthermore, McCourt et al. found that Research between 2000 and 2005 shows evidence that women who requested cesarean section did so because of a “â€¦range of personal and societal reasons, including fear of birth and perceived inequality and inadequacy of care, underpinned these requests” (McCourt et al., 2007, p. 65).
What this finding and others from the literature suggest is that caesarian section if often requested as a result of fear, insecurity and perception of safety. If we take into account that modern studies on midwifery finds that factors such as fear are in effect reduced by the intervention of the midwife, this strongly suggests that midwifery may be instrumental in reducing the number and complications and dangers of childbirth
In addition, there is also the theory put forward by some advocates of midwifery that modern childbirth and labor is dominated by paternalistic male views and neglects the more intuitive view of healthcare praxis. This would also tend to suggest that complications such as cesarean section could be reduced by the midwife in terms of a more holistic and caring perspective. It is also argued by some exponents of midwifery that “â€¦convenience contributes to high cesarean ratesâ€¦ Doctors are described as preferring to perform elective cesareans for “convenience in scheduling” (Lee and Kirkman, 2008, p. 456)
In conclusion, the contemporary theoretical approach to nursing and healthcare praxis tends to emphasize a more inclusive and holistic view of medical care. This view is strongly supported by theories of modern midwifery, which focus on an intimate and caring approach. If we translate this theory into practice we find that in a number of studies there are strong indications that midwifery can be effective in reducing stress and fear as well as other complicating factors in labor and birth. There are also studies that suggest that midwifery can reduce the necessity for cesarean section.
Castlenovo G. Mary Breckinridge (1881-1965). Retrieved from http://www.nursingadvocacy.org/press/pioneers/breckinridge.html
Lee a. And Kirkman M. ( 2008) Disciplinary Discourses: Rates of Cesarean
Section Explained by Medicine, Midwifery, and Feminism. Melbourne Health Care for Women International, 29, pp.448 — 467.
Harvey S. et al. ( 1966) Randomized, Controlled Trial of Nurse-Midwifery Care
Midwifery, 12(4), pp.65-73.
McCourt C. Et al. ( 2007) Elective Cesarean Section and Decision Making: A Critical
Review of the Literature. BIRTH, 34(1).
Nurse-Midwifery in the United States and Its 1940s Expansion: Early Twentieth Century
Origins: Frontier Nursing Service and Maternity Center Association. Retrieved September 1, 2009, from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/452738_2
Seaton Helen J. (2006) Mapping the literature of nurse-midwifery. J Med Libr Assoc.
94(2 Suppl.). Retrieved from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1463041
Shields S. And Candib L. (2010) Women-Centered Care in Pregnancy and Childbirth.
London: Radcliffe Publishing.
Star K. ( 2005) Complicated pregnancy? find a midwife. Mothering, 131, p.23-23.
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more