Race and Incarceration Annotated Review

Race and Incarceration


Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Race and Incarceration Annotated Review
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

The American Penal System has gone through various changes but the most profound changes have been studied in relation the race inequality. Going to jail has become the norm for most of the African-American men. This inequality through incarceration is visible not only in men but in women also. There was a 78% increase in the criminal justice control rates for black women. It was studied that between 1980 and 1992, there was a 276% increase in the female prison population. This is compared to the 163% increase for black men in prison. (Davis 268) These figures give a rough estimate of how the prison population has changed and how the majority of the inmates are either Latinos or African-American. These high incarceration rates have therefore made researchers taste that prison time is normal part of the adulthood of a black man in a poor urban neighborhood. (Irwin and Austin)

While we talk about the victimization that takes place for black people, it only seems legit to discuss how white people are completely left out of the picture. Hegemonic white ethnicity which is typical of the powerful white elites goes on to apply on all the white people. Due to this reason, white people are rarely questioned or are a target of racialized discourses. (Webster 307)

We see a direct correlation between the persistent disadvantages of low education in African-Americans to the large scale incarceration that has been taking place. It is seen that this association is rather indirect than direct. The low level of education ultimately leads to urban deindustrialization, wealth inequality and residential segregation. Regardless, incarceration is shown to have a relation with the family instability, low wage, unemployment, recidivism and restriction of the political and social rights. This makes many think whether it is a vicious cycle by the policy makers and those in charge.

The high incarceration rate and the low education have been traced to the same sources. In other words, the cause for the black men doing crime and not getting enough education is the same. These young men are put in difficult family conditions, bad living conditions and very slim economic opportunities. (Petit and Western 154) Education directly correlates with the employment and occupation status. We saw earlier how economic strains cause a person to go into crime; similarly low schooling opportunities push the persons into crime as well. Poor academic performance and weak attachment to school is very frequent in the biographies of most of the adult criminals

Let alone the direct factors that cause these black men to enter the jail, there are other factors like victimization by the police. Policing efforts and the arrest made by the police therefore determine the amount of crime in that area. Victimization data by the police suggests and therefore strongly supports the racial disqualify that is present in incarceration today. (Langan) Even though this research is dampened by the crime actually committed by blacks due to poverty and joblessness, there has been racial disparity seen in the policing actions as well.

Researchers conclude that the poor are perceived as a threat or a risk to the social order by criminal justice officials. The poor therefore attract the police more than the rich attracts them. This disproportionate attention that the authorities give could due to the way criminal law is written or how the way it is applied in the courts and by the police. (Petit and Western 154) There is a class bias seen when it comes to sentencing someone. If everything was done fair and square, then every person would be given the same punishment regardless of how much education they have. However, studies have shown that defendants who are more educated receive shorter sentences as opposed to those who aren’t that educated. Therefore, it is concluded that imprisonment is more common in low education men because they are victimized by the criminal justice authorities.

Therefore, the aforementioned discussion highlights that racial incarceration takes place through income disparity and racial segregation. People in the poor neighborhoods are subject to decreased level of education. This leads to reduced employment which ultimately leads to poverty. Poverty and helplessness itself are big factors that can cause a person to move towards crime. Even if a black man or woman isn’t likely to commit a crime, the laws and the supervising activities of the criminal authorities system are especially focused on these people. Such stereotyping even by the state authorities can cause a person to rebel and turn to crime.

Class and Race disparity is also seen when we study fine-paying by the people who are charged. Due to the results interpreted, it was revealed that whites are more likely to pay out of the fines and therefore get their prison time reduced. On the other hand, due to less economical support, Blacks and Hispanics cannot do that and therefore they stay in prison longer. (Schanzenbach and Yaeger).

Even though the victimization may not be on purpose, they do carry it out to maintain the social order. It appears as if the elected Democratic and Republican officials have made laws for criminals despite the racial implications that follow. In other words, “race blindness” of these laws cause black people to be treated as racial subjects that are abused and exploited. In simpler words, the law and the justice system thinks that they are being fair and equal. However, the aforementioned notions just showed that racism still exists. (Davis 265) It is seen that fear has always been a component of racism. Fear is something that is present in crime and in racism. Due to this correlation, the people who ultimately fear crime also go on to fear black people as well. These ideologies are common not only for the whites in the society but even the black people themselves. Even a black person cannot back away from the ideological power of a young black male as criminal. Due to these ideologies and stereotypes, crime has now come to take a new sort of fear.

Davis (271) states that communism used to be a nationwide enemy that caused fear in the hearts of people. Now the dear is being taken over by the ideological constructions of drugs, immigration, welfare and crime. This sort of fear is only augment by the capitalistic movement across borders. As corporations move to poor countries outsourcing and look for cheap labor, they create more and more joblessness in the country. As unemployment increases, poverty increases which ultimately leads to more crime for the poor working class.

Even though race is a biological entity, it has been proven that race and ethnicity is socially constructed by the society. People usually assign a certain status or way of life to a certain race and that is maintained throughout the years. It is race itself that gives rise to various social and political struggles. (Powell 804) When people are categorized in certain ways that does not favor them, they will argue and lead to more conflicts. Racial categorizing has always been carried out and is another means of power struggle between different groups of people.

Seeing how there is increased racial inequality in prisons, there have been movements organized to protest against this. Critical resistance is a national member-based organization that is made for this purpose. It works to make movements that would dismantle the prison-industrial complex. The prison industrial complex is basically the term that is used to describe how by using police and imprisonment, the system is trying to work in the interest of the government. This organization works to protect the startups that the mass media has created against poor people, people or color and queer people. Thus, there main purpose is to work in the favor of these oppressed communities and make sure that the current ideologies regarding prison time and punishment are changed.

The One Billion Rising movement was basically initiated to end violence and sexual oppression in women all across the country. This global campaign basically worked to call an end to sexual violence, for justice and for gender equality. The men and women who were incarcerated in San Francisco also became part of this movement as well. Their motives were not only to end the violence against women but to also speak against the unjust treatment that has been going in jails as well.

All this discussion basically brings us to the conclusion that racial and gender bias does exist in our criminal justice system today. The African-American and Latinos are being victimized and are being pushed into the viscous circle that pushes them towards crime. From educational to employment, they are being deprived of equal treatment. Due to this reason, they are never allowed to reach the top and hence they turn to crime as the last resort. Sadly enough, not many people are aware of or agree with the victimization that is carried out by the police. Race and ethnicity are socially constructed agents but it is because of these agents that normal men and women are being turned into criminals today.

Works cited

Davis, Angela Y . “Race and Criminalization.” The House That Race Built: Original Essays by Toni Morrison, Angela Y. Davis, Cornel West, and Others on Bl ack Americans and Politics in America Today. By Lubiano, Wahneema. 1st ed. New York: Vintage Books, 1998. 265-279. Print.

Irwin, John and James Austin. It’s about time. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1994. Print.

Langan, Patrik. “Racism on Trial: New Evidence to Explain the Racial Composition of Prison in the United States.” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 76. (1985): 666-683. Print.

Petit, Becky and Bruce Western. “Mass Imprisonment and the Life Course: Race and Class Inequality in U.S. Incarceration.” American Sociological Review, 69. April (2004): 151-169. Print.

Powell, John A. “The Colorblind Multiracial Dilemma: Racial Categories Reconsidered.” 31 U.S.F.L. Rev, 789. (1996): .

Schanzenbac, Maxh M. And Michael L. Yaeger. “Prison Time, Fines, and Federal White-Collar Criminals: The Anatomy of a Racial Disparity.” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 96. 2 (2006): Print.

Webster, Colin. “Marginalized white ethnicity, race and crime.” Theoretical Criminology, 12. 3 (2008): 293-312. Print.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essay GET A PERFECT SCORE!!! smile and order essay Buy Custom Essay

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.
  +1 718 717 2861           + 44 161 818 7126           [email protected]
  +1 718 717 2861         [email protected]