movie Stand and Deliver (Menendez & Musca, 1988), which is based on the true story of Jamie Escalante, an individual who overcame ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic issues to become a highly successful mathematics teacher. Discuss the beliefs he held and the strategies he employed in his classroom that contributed to high achievement levels in his students.
The final report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008) presents a three-pronged argument for an effective math curricula: 1) It must foster the successful mathematical performance of students in algebra and beyond; 2) it must be taught by experienced teachers of mathematics who instructional strategies that are research-based; and, 3) the instruction of the math curriculum must accomplish the “mutually reinforcing benefits of conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, and automatic recall of facts” (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008, p. xiv). Jamie Escalante began teaching before this report was released, but he knew from experience — and instinct — that students who do not achieve mastery of foundational concepts of mathematics will face unforgiving — perhaps harsh — consequences in their lives (Won, 2010).
Frontrunner Excellence. A report published in 2006 by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics made recommendations for math curriculum that are currently being implemented in a majority of U.S. states as the Common Core State Standards. One recommendation has been particularly influential and is pivotal to curriculum, instruction, and assessment aligned with the Common Core: Math curriculum and instruction should cover fewer topics at greater depth. Best practices in mathematics instruction have established the need to ensure students have sufficient time to learn concepts deeply so that they can build on the learning in subsequent grades and so that redundancy does not need to be built into the grade level curriculum and instruction. Rather, math curricula are designed to ensure continuity across the grade-level instruction, with each deep instruction provided at each grade. This successful approach has been adopted by a majority of nations where students are top-performers in mathematics.
An important outcome of these comprehensive reports on mathematics instruction in the U.S. is the recommendation that the issue of identifying which of two primary methods of math instruction is superior be laid to rest. For decades, there has been an ongoing debate about math instruction that is teacher-directed vs. student-centered. The fundamental difference between the two approaches is based on how much freedom students have to explore mathematical concepts (Barley, et al., 2002). In the traditional instructional approach to teaching mathematics, students are shown how to solve problems, complete multiple drill exercises, and take tests that don’t vary from the formulaic approach to problem solving. The reports conclude that both approaches have merit, and that, according to the chairman of the panel, Dr. Larry Faulkner, “There is no basis in research for favoring teacher-based or student-centered instruction. People may retain their strongly held philosophical inclinations, but the research does not show that either is better than the other.”
Escalante understood the relation of motivation to success — for his students and for the teachers in the math department (Marzell, 2012). He was clearly an outlier with respect to his peers, and was prone to making statements at departmental meetings such as, “Students will rise to the level of expectations you are holding them.” Comments like this did not endear Escalante to the other teachers in the school, nor did it help when he precisely cut to the core of the situation. When asked by the school principal what the school needs to be successful and accomplish their accreditation audit, Escalante said plainly that, “All we need is ganas” which is Spanish for desire and drive.
Research-based Instruction. Several meta-analyses of instructional strategies have led researchers to put forth four approaches that support solid performance in mathematics (Swanson, 2009; Wietzel, et al., 2003). The promising approaches include: 1) Systematic and explicit instruction; 2) Self-instruction; 3) Peer tutoring; and 4) Visual representation. Of these, Jaime Escalante appeared to favor and use all by the peer tutoring, which makes sense considering the lack of opportunity the students in his classes would have had to share in this manner. Escalante’s students lived in barrios and studied in schools that created disadvantage rather than support.
Observing the mathematics instruction given by the character Jamie Escalante in the film Stand and Deliver, it is apparent that he employed a number of the strategies that have become best practice (Steedly, et al., 2012). Escalante provided systematic and explicit instruction through his step-by-step approach that took his students methodically through a specific instructional sequence. Escalante used rote repetition to help students achieve mastery of basic mathematical rules. To wit: “A negative times a negative equals a positive.” Escalante explicitly and systematically taught his students to apply certain strategies that would help them master advanced mathematical concepts.
Escalante’s high standards and continual pressure on the students to perform at their highest levels provided a foundation from which the students managed their own learning when doing homework and studying during summer and after-school class sessions. The power of effective visual representation was not lost on Escalante, and he instinctively understood the value of using this strategy to teach mathematical concepts to his students (Berkas, et al., 2007). Escalante used manipulatives and visualization to help students grasp mathematical concepts. Recall Escalante’s lesson the concept of zero in which he encouraged the students to picture what happens when they dig a hole in the sand and fill it up again.
Motivation and Method Acting. Escalante peppered his lessons with encouragement and confidence building “chants.” Some of his favorite and frequently voiced words of encouragement were:
“You can do it.” “You’re the best. You guys are the best.”
“It’s going to be a piece of cake — upside down. Step-by-step.”
“Math is a great equalizer.”
“You are the true dreamers, and dreams accomplish wonderful things.”
Escalante was not all sweetness and light; he was an unofficial proponent of tough love (Jesness, 2002). He didn’t accept excuses from his students, using a sort of reverse psychology that seemed to cause the students to want to attend his class in response to Escalante’s tenor of exclusivity (Jesness, 2002). Escalante held a key to the students’ future success, and the students knew it. To the student in his first calculus class who believed he would never understand the math, Escalante provided the real-life demonstration the student had been clamoring for: Driving the student in the student’s own car, Escalante made a bad show of driving when following the student’s directions. Escalante summed the experience up for the student: “All you see is the turn. You don’t see the road ahead.”
When introducing the concept of zero to the students, he informed them, “Neither the Greeks nor the Romans were capable of using the concept of zero. It was your ancestors, the Mayan, who first contemplated the zero — the absence of value. True story. You burros have math in your blood.” Escalante’s parents were both teachers and descendants of the Aymara in Bolivia. Escalante would occasionally boast that, “The Aymara knew math before the Greeks and Egyptians” (Schraff, 2008). He wanted his Hispanic students to be proud of their mathematical heritage, and understandably thought that this legacy would motivate the students to put more effort toward learning advanced math (“Hero,” 2004).
Before he immigrated to the U.S., Escalante had been a professor of physics and mathematics for over a decade in Bolivia. As is typical with many immigrants, it was not possible for Escalante to step directly into his teaching role when he arrived in the U.S., so he basically had to jump through a seemingly endless number of hoops before he could once again use his remarkable talent as a teacher. He worked odd jobs — including washing dishes in a restaurant — earned a degree at an American college, and taught himself English. So Escalante knew well the value of an education and he had an affinity with the young students from East Los Angeles barrios. He pushed them nearly as hard as he pushed himself because he could well see the difference it would make in their lives. And Escalante “walked the talk” as few other teachers have; because of this, he experienced the rate busting within a peer group that often accompanies superior accomplishments. Escalante was said to have frequently asserted that both students and teachers had to work hard to reach high standards. Unfortunately, other educators did not welcome the legacy that Escalante created, choosing instead to focus on being adequate — in effect, sentencing their students to a lifetime of sub-ordinary opportunity.
____. (2004, April 13). “Hero'” Teacher Escalante Addresses Students At Wittenberg Commencement May 9. Wittenberg University. Retrieved http://www4.wittenberg.edu/news/1998/commspeaker.shtml
____. (2008). National Mathematics Advisory Panel, Foundations for Success. The Final Report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, D.C. Retrieved http://www2.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/report/final-report.pdf
Barley, Z., Lauer, P.A., Arens, S.A., Apthorp, H.S., Englert, K.S., Snow, D., & Akiba, M. (2002). Helping at-risk students meet standards: A synthesis of evidence-based classroom practices. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from the Midcontinent Research for Education and Learning [Web]. Retrieved http://www.mcrel.org/PDF/Synthesis/5022RR_RSHelpingAtRisk.pdf
Berkas, N., & Pattison, C. (2007, November). Manipulatives: More than a special education intervention. NCTM News Bulletin. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [Web] Retreived http://www.nctm.org/news/release_list.aspx?id=12698
Jesness, J. (July 2002). Stand and Deliver revisited. Reason. Retreived http://reason.com/archives/2002/07/01/stand-and-deliver-revisited
Marzell, T.L. (2012). Chalkboard Champions: Twelve Remarkable Teachers Who Educated America’s Disenfranchised Students, Tucson, AZ: Wheatmark. Retrieved http://www.amazon.com/Chalkboard-Champions
Menendez, R. And Musca, T. (1988). Stand and Deliver. [Film} Warner Bros.
Schraff, A.E. (2008). Jaime Escalante: Inspirational Math Teacher, Enslow Publishers, Inc., p. 12. Retrieved http://www.amazon.com/Jaime-Escalante-Inspirational-Teacher-Biography/dp/0766029670
Steedly, K., Dragoo, K., Arefeh, S. And Luke, S.D. (2008, 2012). Effective Mathematics Instruction. Evidence for Education, III (I). Retrieved http://nichcy.org/research/ee/math
Swanson, H.L. (2009). Science-supported math instruction for children with math difficulties: Converting a meta-analysis to practice. In S. Rosenfield & V. Beringer (Eds.), Translating science supported instruction into evidence-based practices: Understanding and applying implementation processes. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Witzel, B.S., Mercer, C.D., & Miller, M.D. (2003). Teaching algebra to students with learning difficulties: An investigation of an explicit instruction model. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18(2), 121 — 131.
Woo, Elaine (March 31, 2010). Jaime Escalante dies at 79; math teacher who challenged East L.A. students to “Stand and Deliver.” Los Angeles Times. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/lanow/2010/03/legendary-east-la-math-teacher-jaime-escalante-dies.html
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more