Science education and its effect on Improvement

Environment Science education and its effect on Students’ Improvement

Does the current curriculum actually improve the student’s decision making regarding environmental issues?

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Sample Size and Sampling Method

Time Frame for the Study

Scope and Limitations

Budgetary Plan

Current Environmental Science Curriculum

Is the current curriculum design actually improves the decision making regarding environmental issues?

For years it has been a tough job to implement the appropriate environmental education in the colleges. Research in the field has pointed out several challenges in the creation of effective environmental curricula. Researchers also examined different strategies being used for the promotion of student awareness as well as fostering them to engage in the ever changing circumstances. The empirical research studies have made it clear that just acquiring the information on the environment science and ecology is not enough to motivate students to practically participate in environment protection. For the motivation there is a need to connect to the environment and possess an emotional commitment that encourages students to participate. “We cannot win this battle to save species and environments without forging an emotional bond between ourselves and nature as well — for we will not fight to save what we do not love” (Gould, 1993,p. 40).

Through this document the author presents proposal to assess the impacts of environmental science curricula on students studying in the environmental science. There is a huge research on curriculum of environmental science courses. The researcher proposes a qualitative case study research design to explore this phenomenon.

The research has a scope to explore as whether science courses are sufficient for motivating students to be attached to the environment and make positive decision towards environment. The study is significant as it will help to contribute to the knowledge base of the college environmental education curriculum. The college students and instructors will benefit from the results of the study. And as environment protection is a global concern, the knowledge gained through this study may also kick off a global viewpoint and promote communique that endorses sustained environmental objective for benefiting the world.


It was almost a half century ago that Environmental science was introduced as a separate discipline in the curriculum of schools. This was continued in the academic courses and gradually incorporated as major in the college curriculum but being a new discipline it continues to be in a state of flux. Previous researcher focused on the effectiveness of curriculum and education regarding environment and conducted their research mostly with school students (Gonzalez-Gaudiano, 2006) and there is less number of studies found focusing on the college students environmental science courses and their effect. To begin with, environmental science research focused on exploring individual science topics disciplines.

The research that has been conducted with college level science education shows that due to collapse in the different study areas students were found to be lacking of clear concepts about environment and environment protection (Biriukova, 2005; Fernandez-Manzanal, Rodriguez-Barreiro, Carrasquer, 2007; Sipos, Battisti, & Grimm, 2008). Additionally it has also been found that, several programs and courses in college are not relevant for students (Eaton, 2009; Orr, 2004), and the content of these courses usually consist of material that is conflicting and out dated (Colby & Sullivan, 2009). “To develop an integrated sense of environmental knowledge, much of the research has explored student thinking around particular concept areas, without a sense of connection to the Earth and belief that they have some responsibility to help reduce pollutants, preserve natural habitat, and promote green building” (Taber, 2008, p. 1915). Green is defined as “those practices and products that are environmentally sustainable, for example, students may be less likely to work for change that would benefit the environment of the planet” (Leege & Cawthorn, 2008 p.23). The research studies suggest that there is a need of strategies and policies as regards the environmental education (Cole, 2007; Venkataraman, 2009). Also the research has pointed out the need for developing new models at college level that “facilitate action to promote ecological literacy and social change” (Moore, 2005, p. 76). As fragmentation of environmental education has already been established that is why the researcher will explore the parts of these courses that are effective and contribute to the decision making ability of students about nature environment and environmental issues?

Problem Statement

The environmental science courses are not sufficient and there is deficiency in them as regards relevancy and integration in the college education. Typically these courses are designed as part of a subject like biology and other subjects (Biriukova, 2005; Dresner & Blatner, 2006; Joshi, 2009). Due to this fragmentation students are unable to obtain knowledge and experience that is necessary for motivating them for a practical participation in environmental issues (J. Martin & Junker, 2005). Additionally, it is often been neglected to incorporate learner experience in the college science course which is necessary to develop the inquisitive and discussion skills (S. Martin, Brannigan, & Hall, 2005; Venkataraman, 2009).


Through this study the researcher intends to explore the college students’ perceptions as how the courses and curriculum influence their views and participant in the protection of environment as well as their decision-making abilities towards environmental issues. Data collected thus may point curriculum developers as well as environmental education instructors as to what are they methods for the integration of sustainable environmental concepts into all college classes. College students will also benefit from this educational approach to comprehend the environment and also will possible augment their willingness to protect environment. The researcher will conduct a thorough literature review for exploring these issues and then will develop interview questions based on this review.

Research Design and Research Questions

The main research question is: what are the impacts of environmental science courses and curriculum on the student’s ecological knowledge and environmental decision making abilities. For this purpose the researcher will use a qualitative case study to explore whether curricula taught in the college science courses assist in improving the perception and decision making abilities about environmental and ecological issues. “Case studies are applicable when a researcher “explores processes, activities, and events” (Creswell, 2003, p. 183). The case study is surrounded by both a program and time, and the place is a solitary campus (Creswell, 1998, p. 37). It will be appropriate to adopt a qualitative case study research approach for this purpose because through this research the researcher will try to explore how students better understand the environment and their decision making ability toward environmental issues is improved after completing several college science courses. A case study is appropriate if “you need to know how or why a program has worked or not” (Yin, 2009, p. 10). In depth interviews will be used to obtain the views of the selected students about the course material and its effectiveness at their college. Thus a rich data will be obtained that may help to understand and address the research problem. The research will be conducted in the ____college and qualitative case study design will be used.

The purpose of the study is to explore the students’ perceptions about the improvement in their attitude toward environmental issues as well as their decision-making ability as a result of completion of several science courses in the college. In depth interviews as well as detailed discussion with the selected students are necessary “to understand and discover how individuals experience and interact with their social world and the meaning it has for them” (Merriam, 2002, p. 4).

Similarly case study approach will help to obtain the wide-ranging information that is necessary for exploring and comprehending the phenomenon in a better way. Formal and informal interviews and group discussions will help to provide the data required to explore student’s perceptions and experiences as regards the study courses in a better way. Cresswell (2003) also recommends that for getting a rich data the best sources are “interviews, discussions, and students’ poetry, personal journals, or diaries” (Creswell, 2003, p.12). Thus through interviews the researcher will be better able to take out the students perceptions of the college level course material regarding environment science as well as how these courses effected their practical approach toward environment. Adopting a case study approach is required if “you need to know how or why a program has worked or not” (Yin, 2009, p. 10). Due to all the above stated reasons the researcher believed that for the purpose of the study case study methodology is best among all the comparable approaches.

Sample Size and Sampling Method

A sample of 15 students will be selected from the science courses. All junior, senior and sophomore student will be targeted. The students will be selected randomly using a list that will be obtained by registrar of the college.

Time Frame for the Study

The duration of the research will be three months. During this periods interviews will be conducted with the focus groups and discussions will be held with students. After conducting the interviews and holding discussions with the students the collected data will be transcribed and coded.

Scope and Limitations

The scope of the research is to discover the satisfaction of students with the course materials at college level. The study will also assess whether these programs are effective as regards the students practical approach towards environment and environmental issues. Those students who have completed their one year of college education will be approached and will be requested to participate in the research. Though the researcher wants to ultimately present a strategy for interdisciplinary education yet the research has scope for engaging all the field like “life sciences, environmental sciences, and a variety of biology courses.” Beyond this proposal and research I myself feel it interesting to explore parts of the curriculum that are proving barriers in the effectiveness of the college science courses.

Budgetary Plan




Total Cost

A Three of three researchers

Preparation for Onsite Research


Conduct Interviews

Code and analyze collected data

$35,000/- per head


15 students to be interviewed

Participate in the research

$30 per student




Personnel salary: $105,000

Students who elect interviews: $450/-

Additional administration expenses if needed: $45,000.

Publicity: $20,000

Total Budget: $170,250

Literature Review

For decades there has been research studies conducted about environmental education, with main prominence on school level environment education and students experiences. Yet litter research has focused on college level science courses and their relevant parts of environmental studies. (Shepardson, 2005). However, the research has been done on higher education exploring and assessing the environment studies and curriculum related to it.

The discipline of environmental science was initially consisted of taking students out to observe natural environment which developed to mindful conservation movement (Stevenson, 2007). It has progressed and is focusing on an ‘ecological theme’ as well as there is an approach to creating environmental awareness among new generating and preparing them to face these issues

In the beginning, environmental education started as a movement particularly focused to appreciating the nature. In the past, “environmental education has been considered more an approach to learning than a specific discipline” (Johnson & Mappin, 2005, p. 4). In the beginning nature study and examination of the natural world were the educational approaches that created environmental awareness and are considered the foundation of environmental education (McCrea, 2006).

Initially in 1981 a book, “Nature for the Common Schools,” written by Jackman. Was published and it was the beginning of nature study. It “took students outdoors to explore an indivisible environment with an integrated academic approach” (Daudi & Heimlich, 1997, p. 1). Jackman was amongst the first education leaders who presented the idea of consolidating all curriculums around the study of nature.

Then another significant author was “Scientist and educator, Agassiz” who supported the concept that teacher should be aware of the nature study. In addition, Agassiz stressed that educational framework must be broadened by adopting practical approach and not just sticking to the textbooks and the classroom. The idea of “experiential learning in the fields and woods symbolized the first sole departure from the archetypal linear style of teaching and learning. Study nature, not books, was a motto ascribed to Agassiz and this-approach to nature education” (as cited in Jordan, 1922).

Many critics also presented the idea of studying nature study as a center for curriculums. Dewey wrote, “Education cannot be unified in the study of science, or socalled nature study, because apart from human activity, nature itself is not a unity” (Dewey, 1897, p. 78). Social studies replaced Science as a discipline that was a focal point for curriculum. This emphasis on social studies, “rather than on the sciences, had the effect of maintaining science’s marginal status in the curriculum during subsequent decades” (DeBoer, 1991, p. 215). It was not until the late 1960s that the environment once more gained importance as a field of study as well problem at global level and was considered to be incorporated in the education.. “The disagreement here is that when environmental science was being reduced in the classrooms, politicians and governments were focusing science education to solve societal problems. However, the nature-study approach has remained present persistently at low-profile in schools since the late 1800s” (Disinger 2005, p. 140).

Current Environmental Science Curriculum

In the 21st century, there is a wide range of choices being offered by colleges and universities in environmental studies for the promotion for worldwide sustainable environment. There seems and increase since the 2000 in the research that focused on education for sustainability efforts at the college level. Different aspects have been assessed like the role of college environmental-education courses and their efficiency to provide the essential knowledge, skills, and understanding of global sustainability initiatives (Carlsson, 2002; Colby & Sullivan, 2009; Fortuin & Bush, 2010; Joshi, 2009; Stephens, Hernandez, Roman, Graham, & Schulz, 2008; Svanstrom, Lozano-Garcia, & Rowe, 2008; Venkataraman, 2009).

Continuing with this, Carlsson (2002) in a qualitative study pointed to the need to explore ecological understanding and described significance of promoting the environmental indulgent for college level students that they must be motivate to take part in the environmental concerns and improve their understanding of the environment and facilitate them to make environmentally sustainable decisions. This is accomplished by “deliberate efforts enabling them to see certain things in certain ways, ways that are supposed to be effective when encountering new situations” (Carlsson, 2002, p. 714). As there is a transformation in environmental issues and topics with the change in society, Carlsson stressed that there is a need for understanding the involved processes. Researching the oil and recycling issues, “the idea of transformation seems to be an overall ‘gatekeeper’ to more advanced forms of understanding” (Carlsson, 2002, p. 712). Provided that a radical and significant awareness and knowledge, a foundation is made that “establishes fundamental links in the understanding of the interrelations and mutual dependencies within, as well as between living and non-living spheres” (Carlsson, 2002, p. 712).

The research has also confirmed that college science courses offerings are artificially divided into specialized fields (Sipos et al., 2008; Taber, 2008). Examples of the specific areas of concentration include “environmental studies, forest ecology and management, ecology, atmospheric and oceanic studies, geology and geophysics, biology, botany, and zoology. Diversification of curriculum, however extensive, is not enough to increase the ecological literacy or intelligence of adult learners” (Joshi, 2009; Orr, 2004; Peters & Stearns, 2003). Joshi (2009) argued that “as an outcome of not just inaccessible, but a nonintegrated curriculum, there is a lack of understanding of the earth’s systems due to which a gap is present between suitable knowledge and accepting required for environmental-education attempts that encourage understanding of sustainability.” (p. 63),

In addition the research by Taber (2008) also established that it not just the maintenance of the singular-concept move toward for teaching the different field of the study at the college level, but there is lack of literature that assess integrated concepts. “Although much is known about the way that learners make sense of many science topics, this is largely based on individual studies considering the particular areas of science in isolation” (Tabor, 2008, p. 18). The researcher discovered scientific conceptualization in college students in a qualitative study. Though the sample size of the said study was very small and the participants specialized in the science areas to be examined, Taber anticipated that the data gathered through this small-scale approach would change place to a wider model. The patterns that developed through collection of a this thorough and comprehensive data from the participants pointed to that implementing the single interviews with small-size samples creates an all-embracing amount of information about the participants’ opinion and experiences. However, the researcher recognized that the time limitations as well as questions posed may have limited the collection of data. Taber accomplished that the participants of the study though had ability to apply specific science concepts, but a lack was seen in their conceptualization abilities.


In brief, it is necessary to explore the scope of current curricula for college students as to what extent this is helping in creating awareness about environmental issues. The study is significant in many ways. First of all the study will prove to be a great contribution as regards the knowledge base for science course material and curricula in the college. Previous research has proved that a vast detachment exists between the experiences of college students in the college and their practical approaches to the environment and environmental issues. The researcher is going to explore this disconnection by reviewing the previous literature. Adoption of a typical linear style to teach college students is not effective and has negative effects on students’ learning. By Just regulating the courses to be taught or information you cannot engage students and make them to take a practical approach toward environment. Consequently, several students do not have a positive association with the nature environment and ecological systems besides their own homes or communities and they despite knowing the facts and figures they remain non-serious toward these issues. This may be because there is lack of understanding the consequences of their activities for environment (Orr, 2004).

It is also evident from the research U.S. students are usually not attached to the mostly do. Additionally, Western culture is somewhat encourage the idea of a dominance of white on other cultures as well as all the species of life. (Elder, 2003; Sipos et al., 2008). Accordingly, “their understanding and appreciation of living systems and vigorous chipping in activities that might positively affect their conservation stay undeveloped in the traditional college science curriculum” (Colby & Sullivan, 2009, p. 22).

It will be beneficial for the college students and instructor if this phenomenon is explored. In the past, environment science curriculum was developed as a result of societal concerns to addressing environmental issues (Disinter, 2005; Fernandez-Manzanal et al., 2007). While through out the past fifty years developments have been made and thus the current curriculum incorporate environmental concepts in every disciple. The idea behind this was that students from all the education fields become aware of the nature environment and issues related to it. Curriculum taught in colleges should promote students awareness about environmental issues. This will resultantly help sustained worldwide economies and augmenting the likely quality of life for all species. The propose research might be useful in assessing the effects of conducting a research with college students as regards their ecological awareness.

Finally, participating in the study will be a useful learning experiences for the college students that will prompt them to aggressively take part in the creation of a change that will be beneficial for the communities. Thus a combination of a practical learning experience and previous awareness of students through curriculum will help creating a multidimensional learning setting where the “learner can examine socio-scientific issues and make decisions on the basis of his or her scientific understanding” (Balgopal & Wallace, 2009, p. 13).The knowledge gained through the study might help to kick off a worldwide viewpoint and convey a message for upholding sustainable environmental goals to benefit the Earth.


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