living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
Biology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the smallest, fundamental building blocks of every living and non-living matter. Molecules are nothing but groups of atoms bound together by means of chemical bonds.
5) Water is a universal solvent that dissolves most molecules and it is non-reactive as well. All plant and animal life is dependant on water and together with the sun it is responsible for maintaining the complex weather cycles around the world and is the fundamental component of all food chain. It is also a buffer against sudden and drastic changes in temperature of the earth.
6) Carbohydrates are simple sugars or complex polymers made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates represent the main source of energy to the human body. Sugars, starch and cellulose are different forms of carbohydrates.
7) Lipids are organic molecules that are insoluble in water and other polar solvents. ((Ex, oil). This property of lipids is important as they makeup the cell membrane of all living beings.
8) Proteins are complex amino acid molecules that are essential for carrying out a variety of important functions. Asides providing structural support for the cell membrane, proteins also act as antibodies, messengers and enzymes that are indispensable for the proper functioning of the body.
9) Nucleic acids are large molecules or polymers that result by the combination of nucleotides. DNA and RNA are two main nucleic acids. ATP is another important nucleic acid, which supplies the energy demands of the cell.
10) There are two main types of reactions namely exergonic reactions and endergonic reactions. Exergonic reactions give away energy while endergonic reactions require energy.
11) Enzymes are proteins that catalyze specific biochemical reactions. They are synthesized inside the cells and function under specific conditions. They have a key role in cell metabolism.
12) A Prokaryotic Cell
13) An Eukaryotic Cell
14) Photosynthesis is the best example of light energy being converted into chemical energy. The pigments in chloroplasts use light energy to create energy carrier molecules namely ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate), which in turn react with Co2 and water to form sugar and oxygen.
15) The C3 cycle also known as the Calvin cycle is a light independent reaction (dark reaction) which fixes the carbon during photosynthesis. The carbon thus fixed up during the C3 cycle is used up to produce glucose.
16) The following chemical reaction explains the metabolization of glucose.
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 –> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy. Essentially this breakdown of glucose involves the removal of hydrogen and the combination with oxygen resulting in water and oxidized carbon as end products.
17) Glycolosis refers to the chemical process of extracting energy from stored glucose. During glycolosis a sequence of reactions occur whereby one molecule of glucose is converted into 2 molecules of pyruvate along with the release of 2 molecules of ATP and 2 molecules of NADH. Glycolosis takes places within the cell cytoplasm.
18) Chromosomes are composed of proteins and nucleic acid (DNA). They are found inside the nucleus of the cells and genetic information is stored in them in the form of genes.
19) DNA has a double helical structure and is made up of two polynucleotides held together by weak bonds between the nucleotides of the opposite strands. The four different nitrogenous bases in the DNA lead to four types of nucleotides. The base pairs are arranged parallel to each other giving a double helical structure to the DNA molecule with the phosphates arranged on the outside of the helix.
20) Since DNA replication is nothing but an exact copy of the DNA all the genetic information is passed on intact to the new cell thereby maintaining genetic constancy.
21) Genes are composed of DNA and carry the information necessary for protein synthesis. The particular arrangement of the nucleotides makes a gene code for a specific protein or a RNA molecule. The synthesis of proteins by genes is critical for the control of various bodily functions.
22) Different types of RNA such as transfer RNA, messenger RNA and Ribosomal RNA are involved in protein synthesis. The transfer RNA selects the amino acids that are to be rearranged while the messenger RNA provides the instructions about the sequence of the amino acids. The ribosomal RNA is responsible for the actual attaching process. (Different sequences yield different proteins)
23) Mutations to the DNA will affect the composition of the gene. This in turn means that the mRNA from that gene will carry a different message leading to the formation of polypeptides (translation of mRNA), which have a different sequence of amino acids. Consequently, the proteins derived from this polypeptide will also have different function.
24) Gene expression is controlled in many ways in Eukaryotes. DNA binding activators hold the key in controlling gene expression. The chromatin structure may also inhibit access to specific genes for the transcription factors thus blocking transcription initiation. Activators, repressors, RNA transport, RNA degradation all affect gene expression.
25) The cell cycle of the prokaryotes is divided into three distinct phases. First is the growth phase G. where the cell grows followed by the replication of the DNA (S phase) and the final division or separation called cytokinensis. (Phase C)
26) The eukaryote cell cycle is a bit more complex than the prokaryote cell as it involves multiple chromosomes along with histones and similar protein molecules. Following the initial growth phase G1, the S. phase proceeds with replication of the DNA and synthesis of other protein substances. Next is the G2 phase wherein the DNA is repaired. Next is the M. phase (attachment of microtubules) which involves the separation of sister chromatids (mitosis). This is finally followed by the actual cell division or cytokinensis resulting in two daughter cells.
27) Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase / cytokinensis are the five phases of mitosis.
28) Meiosis occurs in two stages namely meiosis1 and meiosis 2. Crossing over and chromosomal alignment are two key events in meiosis. Crossing over happens in stage 1 of meiosis and homologous chromosomes are exchanged resulting in genetic recombinations. Chromosomal alignment refers to the random shuffling and alignment of the paternal and maternal chromosomes.
29) Cytokinensis is the final phase of the mitosis process wherein the cell with two separate nuclei in the opposite sides is divided into two approximately equal cells. This is done by cleavage of the cell wall and cytoplasmic split.
30) Mendel was the first proponent of the theory of heredity. By his experiments with the pea plants he created a revolutionary breakthrough in the understanding of traits and how they were transferred to successive generations. Mendel’s principle of segregation’ and the ‘principle of independent assortment’ laid the foundation for modern genetics.
31) Mendel’s law of segregation explains inheritance of single traits. During gamete formation alleles segregate and they are randomly united during fertilization. The dominance of the alleles explains the expression of a particular character trait or its phenotype.
32) Inheritance of multiple traits is explained by the law of independent assortment. Mendel proposed that ‘genes on different chromosomes are inherited independently’.
33) Our success with the human genome project has provided us with complete mapping of the 20,000 to 25,000 genes present in the DNA. Though much analysis pertaining to the billions of chemical base pairs that constitute the DNA is yet to be completed, the completion of human genome project has made available a variety of gene tests that can identify genetic disorders.
34) There are many genetic disorders that are ascribed to errors in single genes that are inherited. Examples include cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy and albinism. In all these cases the abnormal gene hinders the production of a particular protein that is usually synthesized in a normal body without the genetic anomaly.
35) Biotechnology is the convergence of biology and information technology that has resulted in a paradigm shift in our understanding of bio-molecular chemistry and its application in the field of medicine.
36) DNA recombination occurs naturally by way of homologous recombination. (After transformation). Strands of DNA are exchanged between homologous nucleotide sequences. The Helicobacter pylori bacterium is the most common example of recombinant species that absorbs DNA from its environment.
37) Biotechnology has provided scientists with new means to understand the complexity of protein functions. Molecular cloning, an important tool in biotechnology, has vastly improved the prospects of understanding individual proteins and their functions. Microarray technology is another tool, which allows the study of a group of genes in combination. Similarly, Antisense and RNA interference (gene blocking) and gene knockouts (induced mutations) are important biotech methods that aid our understanding of the complex genetic machinery.
38) Biotechnology is a diverse field and hence the application areas are ever extending. The most prominent application is in the field of medicine. Synthesis of human insulin for example is considered a remarkable breakthrough and a blessing in disguise for diabetic patients. Similarly Genetically modified food products are saving countless lives in famine struck African countries. Safety of food materials is also vastly increased with the availability of DNA probe kits that can detect allergic microorganisms. From the environmental viewpoint also bio-decomposition of waste products promise better pollution control.
39) Scientists study evolution by analyzing the fossil remains and the structural similarity along with slight variations in morphological features. Homologous functional structures indicate same ancestry. Further, currently available genetic analysis also reveals similarities among organisms.
40) Darwin’s theory of evolution suggests a common ancestry of evolution for all the species that exist in the world. Darwin included the theory of natural selection (“preservation of favorable individual differences “) to account for the evolutionary changes implying that by nature only the fittest can survive.
41) Genes are responsible for particular character traits. Evolution of character traits occurs at a particular species or population level as a result of the interaction between the genes and the environment.
42) Evolution can be bought about by mutations, reduced population size, unequal distribution of allele frequencies and natural selection.
43) Natural selection brings about changes in populations over a period of time. Unequal distribution of phenotypes as a result of natural selection hinders variety. For example sexual selection favors traits that increase mating chances at the cost of other phenotypic traits.
44) Extinction of species leads to loss of bio diversity. A variety of factors contribute to species extinction. The prominent of these is habitat destruction as a result of direct or indirect human activities. (Deforestation, pollution, etc.) Introduction of new species is also found to affect the native species. Further hunting, poaching are also leading causes for species extinction or dwindling populations.
45) From the biological viewpoint, a species denotes a group of interbreeding individuals that share a common ancestor. Members of a Species reproduce in isolation from other groups so their genotypes are intact.
46) Isolation and genetic divergence are two necessary conditions for the formation of a new species. Allopatric (where there is physical separation of the population), Sympatric (ecological isolation) and adaptive radiation (where species evolve in response to environmental conditions) are the different speciation methods.
47) There are two main ways of maintaining reproductive isolation between species. They are premating isolation and postmating isolation. Premating isolation includes many factors like geographical, ecological, temporal (differing mating periods) and mechanical isolation. (Incompatible sexual organs). Gamete incompatibility and Hybrid infertility are postmating isolation mechanisms.
48) The origin of life is pretty much an unsolved mystery. Sidestepping spontaneous evolution theory, which the scientific community has mostly rejected, we are left with the theory of organic evolution. (Chemical evolution). Under prebiotic conditions, it is believed that organic molecules would have formed spontaneously, and in the process the RNA would have become the first self-replicating molecule.
49) Though there is no conclusive answer, it is generally believed that the earliest organisms were anaerobic prokaryotes. It is also believed that gradually these early organisms developed the mechanism of utilizing sunlight (photosynthesis) thereby increasing the availability of oxygen.
50) Unicellular organisms were the only forms of life in the early periods of life on the planet. Biologists believe that multicellularity arose as a result of mutations in cell divisions, which prevented the separation of cells after division. (Failure of cytokinensis) Then natural selection might have favored multicellularity for its advantages.
51) Life on land evolved as some plants and amphibians adapted to life on dry lands. Thus, from primitive plants, which depended on water for reproduction (swimming sperms), plants developed pollen grains and attracted insects for pollination. Similarly, amphibians evolved from fish, reptiles evolved from amphibians and from reptiles birds and mammals evolved gradually.
52) Biological nomenclature is a well-defined system wherein each species is identified with a two-part name based on its categorization. The categorization is a hierarchical grouping based on the anatomical and molecular similarities and the evolutionary relatedness.
53) Bacteria and Archaea fall under the prokaryotic kingdom though they have different mechanisms. However, recent studies reveal that some Archaea (for ex, Metanococcus jannaschii has protein synthesis that resembles eucaryotes) exhibit functional mechanisms that are similar to Eukaryotes.
54) The Protista kingdom includes fungus like (molds), animal like (protozoa) and plant like (ex algae) forms.
55) Fungi are specialized in that they can reproduce both sexually as well as asexually. They absorb nutrients from plants and other living organisms.
56) Scientists believe that plants originated from green algae. Green algae contain chlorophyll pigments similar to plants. The ancestors of plants can be traced back to the fresh water environment.
57) Animals are multicellular, Ingestive heterotrophs. (Obtain food from their environment) Except sponges all animals have distinct tissues and exhibit radial or bilateral symmetry.
58) Plants have three types of tissues namely ‘Dermal tissue’, ‘Ground tissue’ and ‘Vascular tissue’. Dermal tissue is the outer layer or the skin layer, ground tissue rests between dermal and vascular tissue. It stores energy and is also involved in photosynthesis. (in leaves). Vascular tissue is the conductive tissue, which includes the xylem and phloem that transport nutrients. Parenchyma, Collenchyma and Sclerenchyma, cells of xylem (tracheids and vessel elements) and phloem represent the different types of cells in plants.
59) Roots anchor the plant firmly to the ground and carry water and other minerals from the soil to the plant body. There are two types of root systems namely tap root system (single root that grows deep) or fibrous root system (has several main roots each with multiple sub-roots). Some roots such as carrots, beetroots store food in their roots.
60) Stems support the plant body and conduct water (xylem) and nutrients (phloem) to the leaves and other parts of the plant. There are two types of stem namely green stem (thin and bending) and woody stem. (Thick and hard)
61) Leaves perform the important task of synthesizing food materials by photosynthesis. Leaves have a central stalk, the lamina or blade and veins.
Leaves may be of different shapes like needle leaves or broad leaves. Broad leaves are further differentiated into simple or compound leaves. (each stalk having several leaflets)
62) Plants acquire nutrients from the soil through their root hairs. Symbiotic relationship with microorganisms assists plants in absorbing minerals from the soil. (eg, legumes- bacteria) Farmers use fertilizers to enrich the soil that is depleted of its nutrient content. Plants absorb water through the roots.
63) Flowers are the attractive reproductive structures of plants. A flower in general is made up of the colorful petals that are held together by the whorl of sepals attached to the receptacle. At the center of the flower is the pistil, the female reproductive part that holds the stalk like structure called the style. At the tip of the style lies the stigma. (the entry for pollen grains). The male reproductive part, namely the stamen (filament and the anther) develops along the base of the pistil. These anthers contain the pollen grains.
64) Seeds develop from the ovules. The fertilized ovum undergoes mitosis resulting in an embryo. The endosperm cell divides and differentiates into the endosperm tissue that nourishes the embryo. The integuments that surround the ovule thicken up to form the seed coat. The pericarp or the ovary wall becomes the fleshy and edible part of the fruit.
65) Seeds germinate when the conditions are favorable. These conditions generally include availability of water, light, warmth and oxygen. While the primary root develops from the root coat the hypocotyl pushes itself towards the surface. In dicots the ‘plumule’ is protected from damage by the two cotyledons. Once the cotyledons reach the surface they straighten and open up exposing the primary leaves and begin photosynthesis. In the case of monocots, the primary leaf is protected by the coleoptile (a cylindrical structure) till it reaches the surface.
66) Animals maintain homeostasis by means of an effective feedback mechanism. As soon as a sensor detects a change in a control variable it passes the information to the central control, which processes the information and activates an effector. The effector either corrects the variable to a preset point (in case of negative feedback) or allows the deviation to proceed (in case of positive feedback) to its conclusion.
67) Adaptation refers to the evolutionary changes that animals and plants have undergone in relation to the environment that they inhabit. Adaptations can be morphological, physiological, biochemical or behavioral.
68) The circulatory system is responsible for supplying oxygen, plasma and other nutrients (blood circulation) to all the vital organs of the body. The circulatory system swiftly transfers disease fighting white blood cells to injured parts of the body and thus protects the entire body from opportunistic microorganisms. The circulatory system also has a vital role in the elimination of waste products from the tissues. (Gaseous exchange)
69) The blood has many vital functions. It transports dissolved gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide as well as vitamins, minerals and plasma proteins that are essential for the healthy sustenance of the body. Circulation of blood maintains constant body temperature and it also serves to cleanse the body of harmful toxins.
70) The lymphatic system plays an important role in transporting vital fluids (hormones, enzymes and plasma proteins) secreted in the tissue cells into the bloodstream. Lymphocytes identify and destroy foreign bodies by producing antigens.
71) The respiratory system is responsible for exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between the airways and the blood stream. The respiratory system is also responsible for purifying the air that enters the body and in removing the toxic carbon dioxide from the blood stream.
72) Animals require nutrients to maintain their body in healthy state. Lipids (fats, phospolipids), carbohydrates (sugars and starches), proteins, vitamins and minerals are the five different types of nutrients that are essential for animals.
73) Digestion in humans involves both mechanical and chemical processes. After Mastication in the mouth food enters in to the small intestine by the strong peristaltic contractions of the esophagus. Pancreatic secretions and bile pigments assist the cells of the small intestine in digestion of the food. Absorption of water and feces formation occurs in the large intestine.
74) The urinary system is important for maintaining the composition and the volume of blood. (and in regulating blood pressure). Kidneys serve to detoxify the blood and other extra cellular fluids by filtering and removing the toxic agents. The urinary system is also responsible for maintaining the ion balance of the body and in regulation of blood PH.
75) Once an antigen is attached to the surface of the antigen-processing cell such as a macrophage and presented to the B cells, the B cells start producing an antibody response tailored for the particular antigen. As soon as the antibodies bind the antigen, the macrophage cells begin to engulf and destroy them. Similarly, when the T cells are presented with the antigen they trigger the production of CD4+, which activates the CD 8+ cells and other killer cells that destroy the antigen.
76) B. And T. lymphocytes are the main cells involved in immune defense. Antibodies and T cell receptors are involved in providing specific immunity and recognize any invading threat.
77) There are different types of immune system diseases such as Contact allergies, food allergies, primary immune deficiency diseases such as Bruton’s Disease, Selective IgA, auto immune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis etc., and acquired diseases such as AIDS.
78) Hormones are special chemical substances secreted by special cells. These are carried to the specific regions of the body via the blood stream and begin their activity by attaching themselves to receptor sites on the target cells. The production of hormones is controlled by other feedback mechanisms.
79) The endocrine system comprises of the pituitary, pancreas, thyroid, adrenal and other important glands. The Endocrine system is responsible for growth, development and coordination of reproductive systems of the body. The endocrine system also regulates cellular metabolism and thus manages the energy requirements of the body. It also maintains the electrolyte balance of the body.
80) The human nervous system comprises of the CNS, ANS and the PNS and is the major communication system of the body. The nervous system regulates and maintains the homeostasis of the body. The main function of the nervous system is to send, receive and process signals between the CNS, PNS and the ANS so that sensory integration is achieved.
81) Neurons are specialized brain cells that carry messages by means of electrochemical process. Each of the billions of neurons has three distinct features namely the ‘Cell body’, ‘Dendrites’ or the short branches that extend from the cell to receive sensory input, and the Axon, which is dedicated to send impulses away from the cell body. Together, the sensory neurons, motor neurons and the interneurons make up the entire communication system of the body.
82) Essentially all sensory receptors work by converting sensory stimuli into action potentials. Action potentials are nothing but the ‘traveling signals’ of the nerves. During an action potential the polarity of the transmembrane voltage fluctuates rapidly between negative and positive. Changes in the receptor potential propagates the signal to the brain where they are interpreted resulting in perception of the sensations.
83) The cochlea region within the ear is responsible for converting sound into electrical impulses. The electrical signals generated by the stereocilia (the millions of tiny hairs in the cochlea) are transmitted along the auditory neural pathway to the brain where they are processed and interpreted to create the sensation of sound.
84) The rods and cones that make up the retina are the receptors for light. They convert light into electrical signals that are then sent to the brain through the optic nerve. In the brain, electrical signals from the two eyes are combined, processed and converted back into images, resulting in the perception of the object.
85) Chemicals are perceived by their taste, smell or contact. For example, the receptors in the olfactory nerves respond to different chemical molecules. Similarly, different receptors in the taste buds respond to varied food substances.
86) Animals reproduce by sexual or asexual methods. In asexual reproduction the offspring is an exact genetic copy of the parent. Sea anemones and sponges are two examples of animals that reproduce asexually. Sexual reproduction involves fusion of the male and female gametes resulting in the formation of the embryo.
87) Reproductive fertility can be controlled by surgical methods of sterilization such as vasectomy or by using oral contraceptives. Intra-uterine devices are also used to control conception.
88) Innate behavior is a hard-wired and instinctive response to stimuli. For examples new cubs by instinct search for the mothers breasts for milk. Learned behavior refers to the behavioral adaptations that are acquired by practice. A dog responding to his master’s commands is a good example of exhibiting learned behavior.
89) Most mammals and birds communicate using different vocal sounds and postural cues. Some amphibians and insects are known to use pheromones to communicate messages.
90) Recent developments in behavioral genetics have thrown much light into the study of the biological basis of behavior. Though, fundamentally, genes are responsible for the character traits in an organism, the behavioral study presents much complexity to be entirely ascribed to biological basis. As a case in point, biologists have no clue as to why when one of the genetically identical twins exhibits schizophrenic behavior the other doesn’t?
91) Populations grow exponentially under ideal conditions. G = rN. Where N. is the size of the population, G is the growth rate of the population, and r is the rate of increase in the population, which is derived from the difference between the birth and deaths in the population.
92) Environmental conditions limit the size of a population and thus the growth of any population is regulated by the carrying capacity K. Thus, the population can continue to grow only to the extent that N. is below K. Once the size of the population reaches the carrying capacity we observe stagnation in population growth.
93) As discussed above Population sustenance is largely dependant on environmental conditions. Factors such as availability of food, climate changes and population density influence migration of a population towards more favorable regions.
94) Ecosystems are dynamic, fully functional units of living environment where living beings coexist and interact with each other exhibiting equilibrium.
95) The Ecosystem thrives as a whole as the organisms that constitute it exhibit equilibrium between themselves and the environment. A food chain characterizes the energy flow between the different organisms in an ecosystem. Symbiosis, predation, parasitism, mutualism are some common mechanisms that sustain the organisms within the ecosystem.
96) Acid rain means the lowering of ph of the rainwater (Ph below 7 is acidic), or the increasing acidity of rain water due to reaction between atmospheric pollutants such as sulfur and nitric oxides and rain water.( forming sulfuric and nitric acids.) Global warming is caused by increase in industrial air pollutants (co2 in particular), creating a blanket shield over the earth preventing the heat from escaping.
97) Climate changes are influenced by a variety of factors. Ocean currents, proximity to the oceans and the equator, wind direction, El Nino phenomenon, etc. Man made causes such as rapid deforestation and air pollution have also started to affect global climate pattern. (global warming and the consequent climatic changes).
98) Water, air, food (nutrients) and shelter are the basic requirements of life.
99) Different Biomes have evolved and are distributed across the forest, tundra, grasslands and the desert regions each with its species specifically adapted to the particular living conditions.
100) Two different aquatic ecosystems namely fresh water ecosystem (less than 1% of earths surface) and marine ecosystem which constitutes 71% of earths surface represent life on water.
1) Mark Rothery, “Cells,” Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
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