Spontaneous abortions among pregnant smokers


It is generally agreed that smoking may lead to numerous, serious health related complications. These health complications are not limited to only the smoker. For example, second hand-smoke can greatly effect third-parties. More so, smoking during pregnancy can have negative effects on the health of the unborn baby. One common problem is the occurrence of spontaneous abortions. Several studies have demonstrated that tobacco use is a major factor in the cause of spontaneous abortions among pregnant smokers. Studies have also shown that smoking during pregnancy can be the cause of several other threats to the health of the fetus. Even second-hand smoke can be dangerous to the fetus, being sited as a cause of early pregnancy loss. Specifically, second hand smoke is most often connected to sudden infant death syndrome. Studies have shown that infants who die from sudden infant death syndrome typically have had higher concentrations of nicotine and cotinine in their lungs. Cotinine is a biological marker for having been exposed to second hand smoke. Although smoking while one is pregnant certainly increases the risk for an incident of sudden infant death syndrome, those who are exposed to second hand smoke are actually at a greater risk for the incident than those who have mothers who smoked during pregnancy.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Spontaneous abortions among pregnant smokers
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

Clearly, smoking or even just being exposed to smoke during a pregnancy can have serious, even deadly, health effects on a fetus. Fully understanding the potential threats that smoking during pregnancy can cause is essential knowledge for any nurse to have. With a clear understanding of the effects, a nurse will be better able to explain the threats to their patients and thus potentially limit some of the complications. To assist with this understanding, the following in-depth literature review on the subject is presented:

Moner, S.E. (1994): “Smoking and Pregnancy.” Canadian Guide to Clinical Preventive Health Care. Ottawa: Health Canada; p. 26-36.

This research was conducted by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. This study not only looks at what the effects of smoking during pregnancy are, but, more importantly, what steps are most effective in preventing a pregnant mother from smoking during pregnancy. This study was conducted using a combination of literature review, personal consultations and records reviews. The results found that advice, multiple component programs, behavioral strategies, repeated contacts and self-help manuals are effective in significantly decreasing tobacco smoking in pregnant women.

England, Lucinda J., Kendrick, Juliette S., Wilson, Hoyt G., Merritt, Robert K., Gargiullo, Paul M., and S. Christine Zahniser. (2001): “Effects of Smoking Reduction During Pregnancy on the Birth Weight of Term Infants.” American Journal of Epidemiology. Vol. 154, No. 8: 694-701.

This research was conducted by leading health care professionals and studies whether reducing tobacco exposure during pregnancy increases birth weight of term infants and the relative effects of early and late pregnancy exposure to tobacco on the birth weight of infants. It was conducted by gathering data from the Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy project, which was conducted in public clinics in Colorado, Maryland, and Missouri between 1987 and 1991 on 1,583 pregnant smokers. The results showed that reducing cigarette use is associated with an increase in the mean birth weight of an infant, thus leading to the conclusion that women who smoke during pregnancy may need to reduce to use in order to improve their infant’s birth weight.

Bailey, Diane, Taylor, Polly and Jeanette Zaichkin. (2002): Smoking Cessation During Pregnancy: Guidelines for Intervention. Washington State: Maternal and Child Health Division of the State Department of Health.

This study was conducted by three nurse practioners in the state of Washington. The research focused on finding the best methods of providing effective intervention to smoking mothers in order to reduce the effects of smoking during pregnancy on the infant. The study was a review of all the intervention methods used throughout the state. The study concludes that the most effective intervention tool for a pregnant woman who smokes less than twenty cigarettes per day is to use the Brief Intervention method.

Sadowski, Kelly, and Thomas G. Parish. (2005): “Maternal Smoking Contributes to the Development of Childhood ADHD.” The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice. Vol. 3, No. 1. http://ijahsp.nova.edu.

This study was conducted by two leading health care providers at the University of Nova Scotia. It was conducted by reviewing literature concerning maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy. The review was performed by utilizing Medline, CINAHL, and Pubmed. It concluded that there is a link between smoking during pregnancy and increased incidences of behavioral disorders, specifically Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, however a direct causative relationship was not established.

Benowitz, Neal L. And Delia a. Dempsey. (2004): “Pharmacotherapy for Smoking Cessation During Pregnancy.” Nicotine & Tobacco Research. Volume 6, Supplement 2.

This study was conducted by two pharmacotherapy specialist and was conducted on a controlled group of smoking pregnant mothers. The purpose of the research was to discover the benefits of pharmacotherapy as a method of intervening with preventative treatment for smoking mothers and thus preventing the numerous harmful effects to the fetus the smoking during pregnancy may cause.

The study concluded that there was a beneficial relationship between pharmacotherapy and getting pregnant mothers to stop smoking. Thus, a conclusion was assumed that pharmacotherapy was a successful method at preventing birth defects associated with smoking during pregnancy.

Cogswell, Mary E., Weisberg, Pamela, and Catherine Spong. (2003): “Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Use and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: Implications of for Micronutrient Supplementation.” The American Society for Nutritional Sciences Journal of Nutrition. 133:1722S-1731S.

This study was a literature review examining the question of whether or not smoking or alcohol use during pregnancy increases maternal micronutrient requirements and whether smoking or alcohol use interacts with micronutrient deficiencies to affect pregnancy outcomes. The study found that these actions did increase micronutrient requirements and deficiencies, thus concluding that health care practitioners should increase nutrient levels in pregnant women who do not meet the recommended allowances in their diet.

Cornelius, Marie D. And Nancy L. Day. (2000): “The Effects of Tobacco Use During and After Pregnancy on Exposed Children.” Relevance of Findings for Alcohol Research. Vol. 24, No. 4.

This study was conducted by two PhD level professors of health studies and consisted of a literature review of various studies in order to better understand the effects of prenatal tobacco exposure so that caregivers will be better able to identify the characteristics of its effects and better treat their unique needs. The study concludes by showing that tobacco use during pregnancy does negatively effect the fetus and thus preventing various types of substance use during pregnancy and treating children affected by prenatal substance use is beneficial to the well-being of the child.

Fellows, JL, Trosclair, a., and Adams, EK. (2002): “Annual Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Economic Costs- United States, 1995-1999.” MMWR Weekly. 51(14); 300-303.

This study reviews the mortality rate of children who were exposed to a smoking mother during pregnancy. The study is conducted by reviewing the mortality rates found in medical records across the nation. It is conducted by several PhD level researchers. According to the finds, over 599 male infants were killed as a result of their mothers smoking during pregnancy.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002): “Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 51(RR12); 1-30.

This report conducted by the U.S. federal government provides a comprehensive review of the effects that smoking has specific to females. It is conducted by doing a thorough review of national medical statistics. It concludes that, as related to smoking during pregnancy, that smoking has a negative effect not only on the mother but, more importantly, on the unborn infant.

Hill, Mark. (2006): “Maternal Effects-Smoking and Pregnancy Workshop.” The University of New South Wales UNSW Embryology Quarterly.

Giglia, Roslyn C., Binns, Colin W., and Alfonso Helman. (2006): “Which Women Stop Smoking During Pregnancy and the Effect on Breastfeeding Duration.” Biomed Central. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/6/195

Torfs, Claudine P. And Roberta E. Christianson. (2000): “Effect of Maternal Smoking and Coffee Consumption on the Risk of Having a Recognized Down Syndrome Pregnancy.” American Journal of Epidemiology. Vol. 152, No. 12: 1185-1191.

Solomon, Laura J. And Virginia P. Quinn. (2003): “Spontaneous Quitting: Self Initiated Smoking Cessation in Early Pregnancy.” Nicotine and Tobacco Research. Vol. 6, Sup. 2; S203-S216.

Kleinman, Michael. (2000): “The Health Effects of Air Pollution on Children.” Irvine: University of California.

Eichhammer P, and Johann M. Kharraz. (2003): “High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Decreases Cigarette Smoking.” Journal of Clincial Psychiatry. 64:951-953.

In conclusion, the literature presented clearly shows that smoking during pregnancy does have an adverse affect on infants and fetuses and that through the proper treatment and counseling, these effects can be mitigated either before they happen or after the infant is born. However, the literature review shows that the research thus far conducted is limited in that there is no conclusive evidence as to the best method for preventing smoking during pregnancy. Therefore, all future research should be focused not on what the effects are, as this is already known, but how best to get pregnant mothers to cease smoking.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essay GET A PERFECT SCORE!!! smile and order essay Buy Custom Essay

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.
  +1 718 717 2861           + 44 161 818 7126           [email protected]
  +1 718 717 2861         [email protected]