Teaching Techniques to Motivate Students
Today, university teaching is initiating a process of change as consequence of European convergence, new curricula and the influence a new educational paradigm in which the unit of analysis are not the actions of teacher but the student’s actions. (Johnson and Miller, 2002) This is a paradigm change substantially central core rather than being represented by the teacher and the teaching is based on learning and the learner. What matters now not so much to transmit knowledge but to help someone acquire knowledge, that is, help them learn (Barbetta et al., 2005?)
This new paradigm leads us to conceive of learning as a process of construction of meaning. In this sense, the student is not limited to purchase knowledge but build it. Thus the student is much more active and inventive, and its role corresponds to that of an autonomous, self-regulated, who knows their own cognitive processes and has in its hands the control of learning. (Johnson and Miller, 2002)
It intended activation in the student a series of basic cognitive processes include the selection and retention of information, organization and development of new information, integrating it in the knowledge possessed and application to new learning situations (Bear, 2008). Consequently, the teacher’s role is not limited to transmitting information but participates actively in the process of making meaning of the student, doing a mediator between knowledge structure and cognitive structure subject (Bear, 2005). According to Fletcher and Crochiere (2004) to achieve that meaningful learning, the process by which this is achieved should be characterized first by being an active process. The student can not simply mechanically record their memory skills, but must make a series of activities to understand and assimilate significantly in their cognitive structures organized.
The importance of these activities is evident, since their quality determines the resulting quality of learning. If the student merely repeats information materials, the learning is merely repetitive, but if he organizes or produces information, learning will be significant and its quality depends on the quality we have these organizations or elaborations. Second, learning should be a process constructive, i.e., the core activities of learning should be aimed at construction of meanings for the subject itself.
The only way to build personal meaning is to relate new knowledge with knowledge already has the subject, putting in close contact with the new knowledge prior knowledge. In short, learning is a complex process. Within this complexity, the student’s own activity is one of the most important because it filters the information, organization, processes, build with it the learning content and, finally, operates on the basis of these contents and develops the skills. (Johnson and Miller, 2002)
Therefore, if we want to improve learning is essential to highlight the leading role of the student, not only because the protagonist feel improves performance, but because it intervenes directly as a proximate cause of his own learning. Learning is thus, strictly speaking, an activity of the learner, but it is a process linked to teaching and, therefore, that Professor plays.
As a result, the university professor must change the orientation of its function. Instead of being a specialist who knows and knows a subject well explain it to become a professional learning, leaving the task of as a function of student learning. This certainly affects their learning process and, consequently, in the result, since the motivation of students to the when facing academic activities is a key determinant of learning (Hsu et al., 2007).
Motivation techniques at a glance
Before this situation at hand, teachers must ask what we can do to improve motivation and interest of our students for learning. In one of his work, Gootman (2008) describes in detail those teaching a course of action that can lead students to grapple with the motivation and learning strategies. From the very beginning of class the teacher should be concerned with capturing the interest and attention of their students. (Johnson and Miller, 2002)
To this end it is essential to awaken their curious about the issue or problem to be addressed, for example, describes a given situation, presenting surprising and novel posing significant problems or defining general and specific objectives to be achieved. Another way to get your attention may be to show the usefulness of the knowledge or skills that are intended to acquire. (Wen & Clement, 2003)
On the other hand, in order that they are focused from the beginning and facilitate monitoring of the course can be presented a scheme in which anticipate the content that will be addressed as well as aspects that relate are dealing with prior knowledge that students may have. Besides what is the proper development of the subject, an absolutely important and often neglected is the interaction between teacher and student. On the one hand, students should be free and easy enough for ask for any doubt or difficulty with which they are. (Johnson and Miller, 2002)
On the other hand, teachers we must not only explain but we have to play a role active in their learning process. In this sense, it is important to provide an appropriate guidance on how to address the activities to be performed and solve problems. As examples we can point the schemes give detailed to guide them on the way forward and continuously review development work to verify that it conforms to the proposal. (Wen & Clement, 2003)
Additionally, the realization of practical work, if your design is cool raised, can positively influence the motivation and student learning. In this regard Frymier and Weser (2001) emphasizes that students can perceive the performance of these works as demotivating if only arise as a learning activity and have no further impact on the final grade. Finally, the implementation of group work may also promote motivation and student learning (Johnson and Miller, 2002).
However for this is so should satisfy certain conditions: first, the task should require an interaction between all members of the group so that each one carries on contribution to the final work. This makes it possible to generate the debate, they raises the need to reflect and become more involved in the work which results in greater understanding and, consequently, a better learning of the task are performing.
On the other hand, it is important to control the size of the groups: those that are too large there is a dispersion of responsibility and is also likely that some members are unable to slip through follow the pace set by the most active. (Levine, 2003) Finally, as mentioned above with previously, it is essential that students have a detailed outline allowing them to organize work and to always have the help and support teacher.
Assessment of learning
The assessment of student learning is one of the major problems which teachers must face. Over the years this situation has insistently, without reaching satisfactory solutions to the problem as due primarily to two issues. (Levine, 2003) The first is that the teachers for usually have not acquired training on what is or should be the assessment and moreover, it is unusual for reflection along with co- profession or even the students themselves on the subject (Kauchak and Eggen, 2008) Because the reality is that they tend to reproduce what has been lived, Kristmanson (2000) and Levine (2003) suggest that teachers’ ideas reflect their own school experience and there is a tendency in the human being try to refer to past experiences in similar areas.
Within the evaluation process should be divided into three phases with clear objectives differentiated (Liu, 2001). The first one will determine the type of necessary information to do so you must know what is to be evaluated for what, how, by what criteria, what kind of information is needed and how it will perform your selection. In the second phase will cover the information for what needs to be learning techniques for collecting, selecting and applying appropriate tools.
Finally in the third phase will evaluate the information and make decisions, being decisive making judgments based on criteria established decision-making and dissemination of the results of the process. With respect to the collection of information on learning, you can have different instruments. (Fletcher & Crochiere, 2004)
Despite the use of one or the other will conditioned by the objectives pursued. It seeks to establish a correspondence between different educational objectives and evaluation tools. In this context, it is considered appropriate to make reference to Bloom’s Taxonomy according to what is presented first goals of the cognitive domain of know, secondly the affective domain objectives or attitudinal, of being or finally behave and psychomotor domain objectives relating to abilities and skills. (Levine, 2003)
Well, depending on whether the objectives are identify with one or another domain would be more appropriate the use of either method of evaluation. While it seems appropriate to point out the possibility of using different methods with the ultimate goal of providing facilities for students with different abilities in relation to evaluation methods, but always bearing in mind what the goals be achieved. (Fletcher & Crochiere, 2004)
Motivation to Learn
Motivation to learn can be defined as the degree of cognitive effort invested to achieve educational goals (Li, 2003). It can also be understood as the degree of “seriousness” with which a student attempts to address the commitments and targets school with the purpose of: a) master the knowledge and skills rather than and get away with doing the minimum, b) clearly verify the status of their knowledge rather than try to complete the task independently of being sure that they actually learned something (MacIntyre, 2002).
Marshall (2001) have proposed to distinguish two types of motivation to learn, one that manifests itself as a personality trait and one that manifests itself as a state. In the first sense, the concept refers to a general provision that allows a student to perceive learning as an inherently valuable and satisfactory and therefore to engage in it in order to master the skills and knowledge to be acquired. Steers et al. (2004) suggest that students who habitually engage in learning are more likely to experience activities such as rewarding in itself and to evidence homework or study in a discipline intrinsic taste and pleasure.
Understood as a state, the motivation to teach leads students to engage in classroom activities and strategies required to activate (Tanol et al., 2010) but, as a rule, does not imply that the tasks should be perceived very interesting and rewarding in it. This explains because many students engage in activities which do not experience a pleasure in itself. Tingstrom et al. (2006) speculate that these students tend to live mainly the study with a sense of duty, commitment and responsibility.
The study and understanding of the motivation to learn have been addressed by two different approaches: cognitive-motivational and educational. These approaches are not necessarily antithetical. (Fletcher & Crochiere, 2004)
The cognitive approach
The key to understanding the phenomena related to poor academic performance has often been defined and careful study of cognitive processes. The research has focused, in particular, structure and on how students use knowledge during learning. In this context, there has been a growing interest on the effective use of learning strategies (Wen & Clement, 2003).
The studies were extremely important for the conceptualization of learning processes, but their character of tightly controlled experiments with volunteers and rewarded, with clearly defined tasks posed difficulties of generalization in real learning contexts (Witt & Wheeless, 2001). In this respect it was found for example that, although trained in specific training, the students failed to apply the strategies of homework and knowledge gained in the laboratory. (Levine, 2003)
Researchers have struggled with the question of what would prevent the transfer of knowledge and skills and if the failure was attributable only to factors cognitive in nature. For this reason, it has emerged in recent years the idea that a commitment to education characterized by a desire to understand and master the content, you get to the extent that it establishes a positive relationship between motivational and cognitive variables (Barkley, 2009). The interaction between these variables can facilitate or inhibit the processes of thought and therefore school performance.
A very clear example of the relationship between motivational and cognitive variables in nature was discovered by Ames and colleagues. (Crawford, 2000) These scholars have found that students have two opposing classes of motivation. Some are motivated by a desire to understand and acquire new knowledge and skills and tend to believe that to succeed in school is a matter of commitment and mastery of content. For this type of student learning assumes an intrinsic value that directs behavior toward the acquisition and mastery of knowledge. (Hsu et al., 2007)
It implies planning and commitment to carry out and complete a task with complete success. Other students however, are much more stressed the desire to obtain judgments and No votes, and prove to be the first class. For them learning receives extrinsic value because it is seen as a means of obtaining recognition and reward by teachers and excel among fellow (Dunlap, 2004).
In those in whom the primary motivation prevails, actions are seen more frequently deep processing of learning content, higher levels of metacognitive awareness of persistence in the face of obstacles, satisfaction in what you do, the availability to choose difficult and challenging tasks. (Wen & Clement, 2003) While those in which dominates the second reason, are more frequent actions processing surface of the content, custody rote learning, the tendency to choose easy tasks and avoiding difficult and intellectually challenging tasks (which could undermine that existing capacity), the low persistence in the face of difficulties (Kirk, 2007). It’s been suggested that the motivation to learn is the result of the combined and mutually interdependent variables. The planning teaching can not be separated from this conclusion.
The motivational approach to teaching
The educational motivational the challenges and the ideas that the motivation to learn is a personal disposition of the students, against which it is considered difficult take action. Teachers who share this view, because they think they have little control over their students’ personalities and conclude that the motivation to learn is neither a goal to be pursued in the process of education or a skill that can enrich their professional skills. This attitude leads to the students the responsibility and the decision to engage in school learning activities. (Wen & Clement, 2003)
Teacher’s Professional success
The students therefore have different goals and motivations. Some want to prove something to themselves or others, learn other futuristic in terms of their own careers. Appropriate courses and training can also be completed part-time and anywhere. Professional success with distance learning is becoming increasingly important because the fast pace of the modern labor market, lifelong learning is essential. (Wen & Clement, 2003)
This however is a lot of discipline and motivation required, the latter may originate from different sources. Therefore, a distinction between the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, which are contrary to each other does not, but often closely related. A distinction is therefore intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and these are not seen as opposites, because only from an extrinsic motivation can arise in many cases, an intrinsic motivation. (Hsu et al., 2007)
Under an intrinsic motive refers to the subject matter content inherent in the subject is set to look at this. This means that the relationship between motivation for learning materials to learners. The intrinsically motivated learner learns from interest, joy, desire, so driven to be learned from the course material. (Levine, 2003)
This is achieved through the application of skills and interests, it has a special significance for the design and personal life is likely to resolve personal problems. The prompt character is the most important intrinsic motive; it is caused by the subject that the student feels called upon to deal with the content, even if he has no use of it. (Wen & Clement,6 2003)
This motif can be a pleasing design of the learning environment to make use. Other motives are intrinsic to the urge finishing something, curiosity and thirst for knowledge. The advantage of the intrinsic motivation can be seen in the lower and outer reinforcing their independence. (Levine, 2003)
The extrinsic motive is the exterior motif, which lies outside the relationship of the learner to the learning material, but acts causing or reinforcing the motivation to learn. One can divide this kind of motive yet in financial motives and social motives. Tangible motives are reward and punishment; they are obtained by setting targets that match the skills of the learner. (Hsu et al., 2007)
Each learner success is again a physical motivation, the motivation to continue learning. However, if motivation posed by others, we speak of social motives, such as competition and group spirit. In this case, motivation can arise from the fact that it solves problems together with other learners.
(Fletcher & Crochiere, 2004)
Adults decide for themselves whether and why they learn, their reasons are very varied, except to keep out of dissatisfaction with the current situation, curiosity, new challenges or mental fitness. (Levine, 2003) It is very important for the adult person for whatever reason; he learns to stand behind what their wishes and needs.
To achieve such educational motivation, psychological needs alone are not enough. There are a number of themes, which work together. The motives of adults continue to make, are very diverse and different.
Increase the intrinsic motivation
To build on the individual needs, interests and goals of learners, increase fun and interest or prevent discomfort and disinterest in the students and, ultimately, to the teachers. There are four starting points for teaching situations:
Course contents: The students have the opportunity to choose according to their personal interests focus on material self-determined. (Levine, 2003)
Materials and Media: An aesthetic, original, humorous or provocative design arouses curiosity and enhances the enjoyment of the dispute.
Learning Activities: Students are “all in the matter” when they are actively involved, try something fun, or even be able to create, on a concrete problem-solving work, or discuss with each other. (Fletcher & Crochiere, 2004)
Learning environment should take into account basic human needs and be experienced positively (eg space, comfortable room temperature, comfortable chairs, fresh air). (Hsu et al., 2007)
Increase the extrinsic motivation
Extrinsic motivation can not be flat as an inferior substitute for “real” intrinsic motivation to be understood. Here, the weighted reward positive actions are at the center. The type of reward (e.g., extra point, praise, and discount) is matched to the learning context and the target group. In the award-mode should be aware of the following aspects:
Structuring: By that rewards individual work steps and intermediate results explicitly, the learning process is structured. The learners are not recognized “in front of a pile of stuff,” but concrete, manageable subtasks. (Fletcher & Crochiere, 2004)
Prioritization: The dosage of reward (e.g., number of points) should be seen as relevant or essential part of certain results or content. A “bogged down” in minor aspects, thus more likely to be prevented.
Feedback: By awarding the rewards will be linked to verifiable work results, the students receive feedback on their proficiency or above their level of performance. Thus, the threat countered that the learner only indulges the illusion that we have understood or learned. (Hsu et al., 2007)
A set of general principles can guide the planning of educational motivational interventions. The first of these considers motivation as a goal, whose realization is the responsibility of teachers, school heads and curriculum experts in the study (Levine, 2003).
Underlying this principle is the assumption that it is certainly true that teachers can not totally control the personality of a student, but is equally true that a course of instruction may sometimes demotivate some students and motivate others and vice versa. Therefore there is a need to understand what educational choices can create motivating learning environments. The second principle considers the motivation for learning as a means to achieve learning objectives. (Levine, 2003)
In this perspective, the acquisition on the subject is used as the starting point for developing a knowledge base for teaching and motivating select shapes. The third principle aims to consider the motivation for learning as something that can be systematically included in the planning process of education (Keller, 1987). For example, a teacher can motivate during and at the end of a lecture, motivational strategies can be implemented to deliver a first task, when running, as in the time of reporting. It may, finally, have planned educational, motivational learning activities to introduce throughout its development (Fletcher & Crochiere, 2004).
The realization of these principles has resulted in an offer of different models of education. Ames (1992), for example, identifies the organization of tasks, in the detailed assessment and interpersonal factors in the climate environment that may substantially affect the cognitive and motivational dimensions of the student.
Bear (2008) have suggested, instead, a model which includes the one hand the factors considered, the other three additional variables also seen as crucial conditions: strategies for the recognition of academic achievement, the location of the place of responsibility for learning and the quality of the relationship between students and teachers.
Kauchak and Eggen (2008) has indicated the following conditions as favorable to the development of motivation to learn: supportive environment, appropriate levels of difficulty of the tasks, learning objectives relevant, flexible use of techniques and teaching strategies.
This view of education is heavily based on the concept of coexistence education. Educational Co-existence refers to the effort to integrate the teaching of school subjects, targets, techniques and procedures motivational educational in nature. With this framework in mind, a teacher can do short runs and find useful work to orchestrate the activities of education motivational speaking.
Barbetta, P., Norona, K. & Bicard, D. (2005). Classroom behavior management: A dozen common mistakes and what to do instead. Preventing School Failures. Vol. 49, Issue 3, p 11-19.
Bear, G.G. (2008). Best practices in classroom discipline. In Thomas, A. & Grimes, J. (Eds.), Best Practices in School Psychology V (1403-1420). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists
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Frymier, A.B., & Weser, B. (2001). The role of student predispositions on student expectations for instructor communication behavior.
Gootman, Marilyn E. (2008) The caring teacher’s guide to discipline: helping students learn self-control, responsibility, and respect, K-6. p.36
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