U.S. Congress is composed of two chambers, the House of Representatives (with 435 members representing fifty states) and the Senate (with 100 members, with two members elected from each State).
The Republican and Democrat parties select their candidates for the two chambers of the Congress in primary elections, “election in which registered voters in a jurisdiction select a political party’s candidate for a later election (nominating primary)”
After winning a primary election, the candidate from the respective party runs in the Congress election, which are held, for both chambers, in November.
For the 2005-2007 legislation (the 109th Congress), the Republican Party dominates both chambers. As such, the Republican Party currently holds 55 seats in the Senate, with the Democrats having won 44 seats and one independent seat (James Jeffords). In the House of Representatives, the proportion between the Republican Party and the Democrat Party is 53% to 46%, with the Republicans having won 232 seats and the Democrats 201, with one independent legislator (Bernard Sanders) and one vacant seat, Robert Matsui, who passed away on the 1st of January 2005.
Many of the legislative powers that have been endowed on the U.S. Congress according to the first article of the Constitution invoke collective actions on behalf of the two major parties representatives. Among these, one can enumerate setting standards for weights and measures, levying and collecting taxes or borrowing money for the public treasury
On the other hand, under the influence and pressure from lobby groups and from the State voters, many issues invoke different points-of-view. For example, making rules and regulations governing commerce among the states and with foreign countries will be influenced by local and national producers. One can exemplify with the recent Free Trade Agreement concluded with the Central American countries, where representatives in Congress debated whether such an Agreement will not damage local agricultural producers through lower priced products.
2. There are actually four acknowledged theories referring to the existence and functionalism of the committees. The first one is the informal efficiency theory, according to which “a committee is better informed about the consequences of a policy than the floor”
. The second theory is referred to as the distributive benefits theory and sustains the idea according to which the committee specialization helps smooth out interest differences. The third theory is known as the majority — party cartel theory, while the third theory is called the bicameral rivalry theory.
There are three main types of committees: standing committees, select committees and joint committees. The first are “permanent panels identified in chamber rules”
. Select committees are established by a separate resolution of the chamber to handle a specific matter. Joint committees are “permanent panels that conduct studies or perform housekeeping tasks rather than consider measures”
The committees receive bills for study and recommendation. According to this procedure, the committee has three options regarding a bill: revise, kill or ignore any measure referred to it
. Additionally, these committees “gather information; compare and evaluate legislative alternatives; identify policy problems and propose solutions; select, determine, and report measures for full chamber consideration; monitor executive branch performance (oversight); and investigate allegations of wrongdoing”
3. Committees and subcommittees play an important role in proposing and recommending legislative acts that are to be discussed in the Congress. This is where the incumbent legislative acts are created and first debated and discussed.
One of the powers a committee has is to hold hearings in order to gather information from non-committee experts
. However, the most important power that a committee has (besides actually drafting the legislative proposal) is the fact that it can make recommendations to the House of Representatives or the Senate on the proposed amendments or legislative actions. Referred to as “ordering a bill reported,” the action resumes the role of the committees in the legislative process.
Each committee has a chair committee, usually from the majority party. Its main role is to control the committee’s activity and, although its functions are basically impartial, we may consider that it has a certain influence in determining the fate of a legislative act debated on.
As the committees are the operational body of the U.S. Congress, one may refer to them as the “gatekeepers” in the House and Senate. No legislative proposal will be debated on in the two chambers unless it has been previously discussed and analyzed by the experts comprised in each of the committees. Quite often, technical analyses on legislative acts involve also several subcommittees and, as previously pointed out, experts from outside the Congress.
4. Because the U.S. Congress members have an activity comprising working in their State of origin and in the Congress building itself, floor scheduling is an important issue that decides the order at which senators take the floor in order to debate or argue for or against an Act. A bill proposed by one of the committees and recommended for discussion in the Congress is placed in chronological order on the calendar.
The Majority and Minority leaders role revolve around representing their parties in Congress debates and Congress administrative issues. The Majority leader “is charged with scheduling legislation for floor consideration; planning the daily, weekly, and annual legislative agendas; consulting with Members to gauge party sentiment; and, in general, working to advance the goals of the majority party”
. On the other hand, the Minority leader acts as a floor leader for the opposition, working to protect its rights in the Congress and speaks on the part of the minority party.
The motions are one of the instruments with which the U.S. Congress operates. WE may characterize them as propositions that are subjected to vote and which are debated in the Congress.
The filibuster process is one of the most important means by which the Congress minority can delay or even block the promulgation of a law. The instrument has been used on many occasions during the U.S. history, most notably by the Southern states Senators, who imposed filibuster procedures in order to stall the implementation of Civil Rights Acts. The filibuster process, as defined and recognized by the Senate Rule XIX, imposes that the senator keeps speaking about the Act in debate, as long as he “1) remains standing and 2) stays in the Senate chamber”
. As we can see, the strategy practically implies that senators opposing a certain Act stall discussions by taking the stand and perorating on the subject.
One of the attempts to eliminate filibuster procedures was the cloture process. Adopted in 1917 as the Senate Rule XXII, the cloture device allowed the Senate to end a debate with a two-thirds majority vote
. As such a majority was often difficult to achieve, in 1975, the Senate reduced the proportion to a three-fifths majority vote.
1. Majority and Minority Leaders. On the Internet at http://clerk.house.gov/histHigh/Congressional_History/leaders.html
2. Vincent, Carol Hardy. Committee Types and Roles. March 1998. On the Internet at http://www.house.gov/rules/98-241.htm
3. About the Senate Committee System. On the Internet at http://www.senate.gov/general/common/generic/about_committees.htm
4. Groseclose, Tim and King, David. Committee Theories and Committee Institutions. John F. Kennedy School of Government. Harvard University. November 1997. On the Internet at http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/prg/king/committ.htm#2
6. Primary Election. From Wikipedia — the free encyclopedia. On the Internet at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_election
7. Goldstein, Brandt. Filibusted. On the Internet at http://slate.msn.com/id/2078519/
8. Filibuster and Cloture. U.S. Senate References. On the Internet at http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/briefing/Filibuster_Cloture.htm
Primary Election. From Wikipedia — the free encyclopedia. On the Internet at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_election
On the Internet at http://encyclopedia.laborlawtalk.com/Congress_of_the_United_States
Groseclose, Tim and King, David. Committee Theories and Committee Institutions. John F. Kennedy School of Government. Harvard University. November 1997. On the Internet at http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/prg/king/committ.htm#2
Vincent, Carol Hardy. Committee Types and Roles. March 1998. On the Internet at http://www.house.gov/rules/98-241.htm
Vincent, Carol Hardy. Committee Types and Roles. March 1998. On the Internet at http://www.house.gov/rules/98-241.htm
About the Senate Committee System. On the Internet at http://www.senate.gov/general/common/generic/about_committees.htm
Majority and Minority Leaders. On the Internet at http://clerk.house.gov/histHigh/Congressional_History/leaders.html
Goldstein, Brandt. Filibusted. On the Internet at http://slate.msn.com/id/2078519/
Filibuster and Cloture. U.S. Senate References. On the Internet at http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/briefing/Filibuster_Cloture.htm
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more