Discipline for Children
Understanding effective parental discipline, defined as social projection of parents’ concepts onto their children, their impact and hence its development in the children’s mind, comes under a number of mechanisms and paradigms of research literature. They range from learning theories, morality theories, and parental styles of social delivery to socio cultural cum environmental approach (Halpenny, et al., 2010).
According to Clinton and Sibcy (2006), it is deemed that children are emotionally sensitive parts of the society who need parents, care, leadership, love and nurturing from someone whose primary duty is to take care of the child. According to the authors, it is possible that some decisions undertaken by the guardians in the name of love may result into deteriorative outcomes detested by the children and may form a bad effect on their lives. Following is a table (p. 6) extracted from Clinton and Sibcy defining different traits of different parents with different school of thought:
PARENTS WHO GIVE HEALTHY LOVE
PARENTS WHO OVERPROTECT
PARENTS WHO OVERCONTROL
PARENTS WHO OVERINDULGE
See children as gifts
See children as fragile
See children as little versions of themselves
See children as possessions
Nurture kids to be unique
Nurture kids to be safe
Nurture kids to be perfect
Nurture kids to be entitled
Are respectful and supportive
Lack respect and are overly supportive
Lack respect for their child
Are overly supportive
Are kind and firm
Are kind, not firm
Are firm, not kind
Are kind, not firm
View mistakes as opportunities to learn
Allow no opportunity for mistakes
Allow no opportunity for mistakes
Believe mistakes do not matter
Give appropriate supervision
Give too much supervision
Give directions and commands
Give no supervision
Encourage feelings and teach empathy
Avoid unpleasant feelings
Do not encourage feelings
Believe feelings are everything
Teach living skills
Get into their child’s world
Censor and pry into their child’s world
Force their child to enter their world
Let their child rule the world
Teach balance of grace and biblical truth
Teach that the world is dangerous
Teach a theology of works and performance
Teach pride and selfishness
Understanding parental nurturing and discipline is important. Most of the information is extracted from social and learning theory, which is followed by the above table very well. According to this theory, in a wider perspective, children adopt the habits for which they are rewarded and leave the ones they are punished on. This depicts the pattern of socialization in context to parental guidance on behavior. The theory is aligned with the same instinct of the child’s behavior development with what that behavior brings (Eisenberg and Valiente, 2002).
Domjan (2000) has evaluated considerable information about the behavior of a child in relation to a punishment. A child naturally avoids practicing behavior that results into punishment or at least lessens its frequency. However, it is of severe importance that the changes brought about by the acts of punishment deliver special projections on the behavior of a child. A child needs to be under constant supervision in these situations to narrow the behavioral track to the required behavior.
The widespread perspective of practicing punishments also causes an unlimited or uncontrollable level of punishments that may result into injuries or abuse rather than disciplinary action. This is due to the perception of punishment as the required element for a perfect child’s behavior and socialization (Holden, 2002). Bandura (1986) suggests that social, cultural and environmental projections are the basis of behavioral patterns of the children.
It is the parents’ responsibility and naturally the parents’ or guardians’ behavior that moulds child’s mind. Children exhibit from their behavior what they have learned from their guardians and the society, along with the set of examples of practices that are punishable (Eisenberg and Valiente, 2002). Moreover, as suggested by Straus (1991), punishments of physical form if not supervised correctly bring a hard, aggressive and vigilant character in the children.
Undoubtedly, Punishments do not mean discipline. Nevertheless, the process of internalization is adopted by children to understand their parents’ behavior, motives, and values (Grusec and Goodnow, 1994). Internal motivation and confidence is developed by mental projections of social behavior, as addressed by Hoffman (2000) in theory of moral internalization.
It is suggested that children interprets socialization through the encounters of discipline with the parents which invokes the process of internalization. The marks of this internalization are taken as child’s interpretation of socialization and discipline is depicted by the behavioral traits of the child (Hoffman, 2000). Motivating and stimulating the process of internalization can bring ability for the child to understand social elements without pressures of punishments, which eliminates the need for external pressures through moral, emotional and logical negotiations and discussions. In addition to this, punishments happen to be either negatively impacting or do not impact at all Grusec and Goodnow (1994).
It is suggested by Smith et al. (2005) that pressure exceeding a moderate level can bring negative changes in character and behavioral traits of the children, thus, depriving them of motivation and deteriorating mental development, which is integral to internalization. Moreover, it disturbs the understanding between parents and children. On the contrary, it is suggested that low punishments can result into indifference as well. Similarly, it is claimed by Thompson and Kochanska (1997) that pressure, punishments and use of force develop nervousness, stress and lack of confidence in the child, hence, killing motivation and self-respect, and weakens parental message. It is concluded by different scholars that a combined strategy should be employed to ensure right proportion of induction and punishment for the children to seed internalization. This enhances discipline, compliance, good behavior and self-respect through proper internalization and socialization (Grusec and Goodnow, 1994).
According to the conceptual framework of Martin and Maccoby (1983) and Baumrind (1971 and 1991), parental behavior in children encountering have two different sides. One side depicts the inductive behavior of the parents focusing on warmth and emotions during the encounters, while the other side depicts the pressure side focusing on punishments during encounters.
authoritarian (higher-control level, lower-responsive levels);
authoritative (higher-control levels, higher-responsive levels);
permissive-neglectful (lower-control levels, lower-responsive levels);
permissive-indulgent (lower-control levels, higher-responsive levels).
Factors that influence effective discipline
Dr. Cloud documented a case study in his book revealing significant facts about parent-child encounters. Allison was a mother to fourteen-year-old Cameron, whom the doctor found to be cleaning Cameron’s room. Dr. Cloud told Allison that it was sad to see Allison doing what Cameron should do herself. Allison showed connection to what Dr. had to say and replied with her concern for future of her son and his future family that she never thought about it. Dr. asked in his book to the parents who are practicing the same as Allison does about their concerns for the shaping of their children’s future. Dr. claims that a person is destined with how he behaves (Cloud and Townsend, 2001).
According to Dr. Cloud character traits of a person, his abilities and capacities, morality and school of thought, socialization and relationships are the primary determinants of his destiny. To understand one’s character it is important to assess personal traits, understanding about oneself, weaknesses, strengths, threats and talents. Parents can look into themselves and their child for the issues. They can remove their weaknesses that have been identified, enhancing their abilities already figured out, hence designing themselves and their child for the better destiny. The aim of every parent is to provide a path for their children, which leads them to their correct destiny and keep them aligned to this path (Cloud and Townsend, 2001).
The character development process requires understanding of three major elements that play considerable role. They are child’s state of mind, parents’ state of mind and interactive social variables. However, understanding the interaction of these variables is a tedious and complex task due to their nature and alignment of social and natural influences (Halpenny, et al., 2010).
Influence of child attributes
Parental attitudes have been discussed widely in past few decades. Nowadays, influence of children on their parents’ behavior is studied, hence giving it a two way perspective or child effect (Bugental and Goodnow, 1998, p. 389). It was depicted by Holden et al. (1997) that how 3/4ths of the mothers claimed change in behaviors due to physical punishment to their children. This placed a definite projection on their minds, establishing relation of the punishment encounters with the characteristics of family and parents with their children.
Differentiating the study on respect of gender, it has been found that however the results are inconsistent (Woodward and Fergusson, 2002; Holden et al., 1997), male children are found to be more vulnerable to physical punishments rather girls, with harsh behavior and strict limits (Dietz, 2000 and Kanoy et al., 2003). A pattern of inconsistent results is achieved if studies of Ritchie (2002), Nobes et al., (1999) and Simons et al., (1991) are considered. Parents punished boys more often than girls, which ranged from strict extent of punishment for boys and rather warm encounters with the girls.
In accordance with the child’s age, reponses of parental discipline vary. Studies show us that younger children experience more physical punishments in comparison which older age children (Dietz, 2000; Ghate et al., 2003). Nevertheless, it is also noted that, older age children face, in comparison to younger children, more strict physical punishments than younger children (Nobes and Smith, 2002; Straus and Stewart, 1999). Utilization of physical punishment is common among pre-school age children and toddlers, in North America and UK (Clement et al., 2000; Ghate et al., 2003). According to Durrant (2005), reason behind this high level of disciplinary problems in these ages is because of the combination of age-based influences resulted in demonstration of independence and exploration, along with the element of negativism, impulsive as well as little or no understanding of danger and harm.
Misdemeanours of certain children may result in high level and strict physical punishments as disciplinary response. These responses are highly dependent on the culture, that is, values and norms of a culture. Different studies conducted in USA and UK indicates that, aggression and self-endangerment are most common behaviours that results in physical punishments and are sometimes considered acceptable as a disciplinary response (Durrant, 1996; Ghate et al., 2003; Holden et al., 1999). Behaviour that mostly likely results in physical punishment as reported by Smith et al. (2005) are once which are against moral codes, challenges control and authority of parents, or actions that possesses danger other or the child. Thus, it is more likely that, children losing their temper easily are subject to physical punishment. Furthermore, circumstances in which disciplining incident have occurred and at time of misbehaviour, natures of exchange are two most important things to predict physical punishment as means of disciplinary response. As an example, Socolar et al. (1999), when primary response fails and parental anger is at severe levels, usually as secondary response, slapping is used as a disciplinary action.
Interpretation of the children’s behaviour by their parents makes the behaviour of children acceptable or intolerable (Bugental and Happaney, 2002). Response of parents regarding disciplinary incidents depends upon the attributes and perceptions that parents makes about their children characteristics, that is, if a parent tends to have a hostile attributes and perceptions regarding their children, this may result in punitive way of parenting (MacKinnon-Lewis et al., 1992). For instance, children considered to be aggressive and responsible for what they do, are likely to be considered worthy of corporeal punishment. Moreover, children in elementary schools and pre-schools showing aggressive behaviour results in negative parent cognitions and emotions, which ultimately results in more negative or strict parenting methods (Miller, 1995). Unexpected and ambiguous events may also set to motion parental attributional process. According to Bugental and Happaney (2002), adults having attributional style with low-power (i.e. they believe that, they have less power when it comes to care-giving relationships in comparison to their children) exhibits defensive patterns when it comes to responding children’s undesirable behaviour. According to this viewpoint, the reposes regarding parental attributional processes are set to motion when a relevant event happens in a care-giving environment. This process also serves as to mediate or moderate parental disciplinary responses.
Parental styles may also depend upon the patterns of parental attributions. Situation where a child depicts negative behaviour, an authoritarian mother will be less focused on emotions and understanding the behaviour and aggression due to external source, in comparison authoritative mother (Coplan et al., 2002). In almost all scenarios related to child-rearing, an authoritarian mother will mostly respond with embarrassment and anger. In accordance with the above findings, it is suggested that authoritative and authoritarian mothers have different emotional response patterns. That is, they are different in almost every aspects of child-rearing process. However, in many challenging situations regarding child-rearing, put empathises on different cognitive reactions regarding authoritarian vs. authoritative mothers.
To summarize, use of corporal punishment depends upon many different factor regarding characteristics of a child. One of the most important developments in child is when he exclusively relies on his parent. At this stage of life, child’s behaviour and characteristics are influenced by parental disciplinary responses. There are inconsistency in results, when considering factors like age and gender, to explain variations in different disciplinary responses linking it to physical punishments. There are few studies suggesting that, in comparison with girls, boys are more often victims of physical punishments. However, there are few studies showing no such effect of gender on disciplinary responses. Likewise, there are many studies reporting high occurrence of corporal punishment in young children that is, in early childhood stage. However, there are few studies which suggest that older children are more strictly and severely punished. It is significant to mention that, interpretation of parents regarding behaviours and action of their children plays an important role initiating different disciplinary responses. Punitive parenting may result due to parent’s hostile attribution that parent associate with his child (Halpenny, et al., 2010).
Influence of Parent attributes
There are many characteristic, associated with parental styles, which may approve or disapprove use of physical punishment. Finding form many studies are doubtful, regarding gender of parents effecting disciplinary response. Few researchers suggest that there are no gender variations (Hemenway et al., 1994; Murphy-Cowan and Stringer, 1999; Nobes et al., 1999); on the other hand few studies prpose that, in comparison to father, mother uses more corporal punishments (Giles-Sims et al., 1995; Dietz, 2000; Durrant et al., 1999). It has also been indicated that, parents of young age are more likely to utilize corporal punishments (Giles-Sims et al., 1995; Dietz, 2000; Durrant et al., 1999). Culture variations that is, beliefs of parents may also influence the kind of disciplinary response (Pinderhughes et al., 2000). Generally speaking, parents possessing low level of education use physical punishments as a disciplinary response (Durrant et al., 1999). On the other hand, there are few exceptions, that shows high educated parents using physical punishments are disciplinary responses (Wolfner and Gelles, 1993). There are few studies that show no effects of education on disciplinary responses (Dietz, 2000). Parents that are of belief that, positive parenting will affect their child in days to come, are less likely to use coercive punishments.
Parents suffering from depressing (Bluestone and Tamis-LeMonda, 1999), or have problems related to alcohol/drug (Woodward and Fergusson, 2002), or have hostile/anti-social personality (Fisher and Fagot, 1993) are expected to use corporal punishments for their children. The level of frustration, anger, or irritation in a parent towards the conflicts that he faces when dealing with is child, many also affect use of coercive strategies, which includes corporal punishments (Ateah and Durrant, 2005; Holden et al., 1995). Frustration and anger of a parent increase the possibility of using more aggressive level of punishment than they expect (Vasta, 1982).
It is also seen that, parent that where subject to physical punishment in their childhood are more prone toward physical punishments towered their children (Bower-Russa et al., 2001; Ghate et al., 2003; Graziano and Namaste, 1990). This intergenerational transmission is also considered to be a major factor that influences a parent’s disciplinary response toward their children. A timely relationship was found among the experiences of children been slapped and usage of slapping as a strategy of discipline according to the longitudinal research on behavior development involved with corporal punishment (Deater-Deckard et al., 2003). Although, no relationship was found among juveniles who were suspected of experiencing physical mistreatment in the early or middle stage of their childhood. According to the twin study done by Kendler’s (1996) on numerous generations suggested that behavior of parents was influenced genetically by characteristics of their temperament additionally.
Amusingly, Korea and Northern Ireland are the areas where these studies were done and exceptions were derived. Across generations, the physical punishment was extended due to the influence of socio-economic background as per the study of Northern Ireland. Murphy-Cowan and Stringer (1999) contributed that corporal punishment in working class families is determined through the frequency it was used across generations’ kids, although middle-class families, where corporal punishment was faced more often by the parents, did not observe this. Similar to this, when conflicts are faced by the mothers, who experienced corporal punishment in their childhood, with their kids did not respond it heavily among the immigrant from Korea in U.S..
Approval of corporal punishment also depends upon the personal experience of parents in their childhood and this is one of the strongest predictors for the usage of corporal punishment (Durrant, 2005). According to a study which examined the probable indicators of mothers practising corporal punishment, like goals of discipline, child development knowledge, maternal anger, personal experience of physical punishment in childhood, knowledge about different conflicts among children and parents, corporal punishment’s approval and child’s desired behavior and expected seriousness, though the strongest among these predictors was approval of parents (Ateah and Durrant, 2005). Acceptability of children’s physical punishment among older parents, men and parents who were not educated was higher in 14 states of European Union, according to a research done recently (Gracia and Herrero, 2008). Ghate et al. (2003) observed similar thing in UK where physical punishment was practiced 5 times more byte parents who accepted it as compare to the ones who did not accepted the corporal punishment. Personal behavior of parents towards discipline also contributed a lot when they were parenting the kids of their own (Bugental and Happaney, 2002).
Summarizing this, the age of the parents remains a crucial factor in the usage of the corporal punishment and facets of parenthood, along with the repeated corporal punishment usage by young parents. Though, any particular gender of parents has not been identified towards the usage of corporal punishment but mothers use it more frequently as compare to fathers according to the suggestions made by few studies. It has also been found that discipline responses are also influenced by values of parents. Lastly, using the strategies of parental discipline is also significantly influenced by their own childhood experiences and their mental health (Halpenny, et al., 2010).
Influence of Contextual factors
Physical punishment from parents has an association with the family structure and other contextual factors (Smith and Brooks-Gunn, 1997). The families who have more members are more likely to use physical punishment as compare to small families (Eamon and Zuehl, 2001). Parenting or relationship stress, violence or marital conflicts are also factors involved in the increasing ratio of physical punishment usage. (Coyl et al., 2002; Wilson et al., 2002; Wissow, 2001). A study was conducted regarding physical punishment and family structure, according to which, physical punishment is influenced by economic and psychosocial stresses rather than family structure (Nobes and Smith, 2002). Number of parents in family had no association with child maltreatment; however, discordant marital status, poor mental health, and poverty were related to child maltreatment. Similarly, parents won’t be punished if they really prevent any mishap on the part of their child (Anderson et al., 2002; Bower-Russa et al., 2001). However, in certain cases, parents may be punished. Greene (1994) analyzed why Irish parents prefer giving physical punishments, and concluded that they consider it effective without harming the child, societal pressures to punish their child, or parental stress due to child rearing.
To conclude, no unique solution has been achieved that will describe the reason behind physical punishment by parents. Contextual factors, like family structure and composition, are unrelated to punishment strategy. It is very complicated to assess the affect of ethnic and cultural differences that account for physical punishment. However, stress reported by parents, like parenting, relationship, or conflict stress, have significant impact in physical punishment (Halpenny, et al., 2010).
Anderson, S., Murray, L. And Brownlie, J. (2002) Disciplining Children: Research with parents in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive Central Research Unit.
Ateah, C. And Durrant, J. (2005) ‘Maternal use of physical punishment in response to child misbehaviour: Implications for child abuse prevention’, Child Abuse and Neglect, Vol. 29, pp. 169-85.
Bandura, A. (1986) Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Baumrind, D. (1971) ‘Current patterns of parental authority’, Developmental Psychology Monographs, Vol. 4, No. 1, Part 2.
Baumrind, D. (1991) ‘Does causally relevant research support a blanket injunction against disciplinary spanking by parents?’, Invited Address at the 109th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, August 2001.
Bluestone, C. And Tamis-LeMonda, C.S. (1999) ‘Correlates of parenting styles in predominantly working and middle-class African-American mothers’, Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, No. 4, pp. 881-93.
Bower-Russa, M.E., Knutson, J.F. And Winebarger, A. (2001) ‘Disciplinary history, adult disciplinary attitudes and risk for abusive parenting’, Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 29, pp. 219-40.
Bugental, D.B. And Happaney, K. (2002) ‘Parental Attributions’. In: M.H. Bornstein (ed.), Handbook of Parenting. Volume 3: Being and Becoming a Parent (2nd edition). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 509-35.
Bugental, D.B. And Goodnow, J.J. (1998) ‘Socialization Processes’. In: W. Damon (Series Ed.) and N. Eisenberg (Volume Ed.), Handbook of Child Psychology. Volume 3: Social, emotional and personality development (5th edition). New York: Wiley, pp. 389-462.
Clement, M., Bouchard, C., Jette, M. And Laferriere, S. (2000) La Violence Familiale dans la Vie des Enfants du Quebec. Quebec: Institut de la Statistique du Quebec.
Clinton and Sibcy. (2006). Loving your child too much: Staying close to your kids without overprotecting, overindulging, or over controlling. Thomas Nelson Publishers
Coplan, R.J., Hastings, P.D., Lagace-Seguin, D. And Moulton, C.E. (2002) ‘Authoritative and authoritarian mothers’ parenting goals, attributions and emotions across different child-rearing contexts’, Parenting, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 1-26.
Cloud and Townsend. (2001). Boundaries with Kids and Clinton. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House.
Coyl, D.D., Roggman, L.A. And Newland, L.A. (2002) ‘Stress, maternal depression and negative mother — infant interactions in relation to infant attachment’, Infant Mental Health Journal, Vol. 23, pp. 145-63.
Deater-Deckard, K., Lansford, J., Dodge, K., Pettit, G. And Bates, J. (2003) ‘The development of attitudes about physical punishment: An 8-year longitudinal study’, Journal of Family Psychology, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 351-60.
Dietz, T.L. (2000) ‘Disciplining Children: Characteristics associated with the use of corporal punishment’, Child Abuse and Neglect, Vol. 24, No. 12, pp. 1529-42.
Domjan, M. (2000) The Essentials of Conditioning and Learning (2nd edition). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Durrant, J. (1996) ‘The Swedish Ban on Corporal Punishment: Its history and effects’. In: D. Frehesse, W. Horn and K.-D Bussman (eds.), Family Violence against Children: A Challenge for Society. New York: Walter de Gruyter, pp. 19-25.
Durrant, J. (2005) ‘Corporal Punishment: Prevalence, predictors and implications for child behaviour and development’. In: S.N. Hart (ed.), Eliminating Corporal Punishment: The Way Forward to Constructive Child Discipline. Paris: UNESCO, pp. 49-90.
Durrant, J., Broberg, A. And Rose-Krasnor, L. (1999) ‘Predicting maternal use of physical punishment from maternal characteristics in Sweden and Canada’. In: P.D. Hastings and C.C. Piotrowski (eds.), New Directions in Child Development: Conflict as a context for understanding maternal beliefs about child-rearing and children’s misbehaviour. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 25-41.
Eamon, M.K. And Zuehl, R.M. (2001) ‘Maternal depression and physical punishment as mediators of the effect of poverty on socio-emotional problems of children in single-mother families’, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, Vol. 71, pp, 218-26.
Eisenberg, N. And Valiente, C. (2002) ‘Parenting and Children’s Prosocial and Moral Development’. In: M.H. Bornstein (ed.), Handbook of Parenting. Volume 5: Practical Issues in Parenting (2nd edition). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 111-42.
Fisher, P.A. And Fagot, B.I. (1993) ‘Negative Discipline in Families: A multi-dimensional risk model’, Journal of Family Psychology, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 250-54.
Ghate, D., Hazel, N., Creighton, S., Finch, S. And Field, J. (2003) The National Study of Parents, Children and Discipline in Britain. London: Policy Research Bureau.
Giles-Sims, J., Straus, M.A. And Sugarman, D.B. (1995) ‘Child, maternal and family characteristics associated with spanking’, Family Relations, Vol. 44, No. 2, pp. 170-76.
Gracia, E. And Herrero, J. (2008) ‘Is it considered violence? The acceptability of physical punishment of children in Europe’, Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 70, pp. 210-17.
Graziano, A.M. And Namaste, K.A. (1990) ‘Parental use of physical force in child discipline’, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 5, pp. 449-63.
Greene, S. (1994) ‘Why do parents smack their children?’, Journal of Child Centred Practice, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 27-38.
Grusec, J.E. And Goodnow, J.J. (1994) ‘Impact of parental discipline methods on the child’s internalisation of values: A reconceptualisation of current points-of-view’, Developmental Psychology, Vol. 30, pp. 4-19.
Halpenny, A.M, Nixon, E, and Watson, D. (2010). Parents’ Perspectives on Parenting Styles and Disciplining Children. Office of the minister for children and youth affairs.
Hemenway, D., Solnick, S. And Carter, J. (1994) ‘Child-rearing Violence’, Child Abuse and Neglect, Vol. 18, No. 12, pp. 1011-20.
Hoffman, M.L. (2000) Empathy and Moral Development: Implications for caring and justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Holden, G.W. (2002) ‘Perspectives on the effects of corporal punishment: Comment on Gershoff (2002)’, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 128, No. 4, pp. 590-95.
Holden, G.W., Coleman, S.M. And Schmidt, K.L. (1995) ‘Why 3-year-old children get spanked: Parent and child determinants as reported by college-educated mothers’, Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, Vol. 41, pp. 431-52.
Holden, G.W., Thompson, E.E., Zambarano, R.J. And Marshall, L.A. (1997) ‘Child effects as a source of change in maternal attitudes towards corporal punishment’, Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Vol. 14, pp. 481-90.
Holden, G.W., Miller, P. And Harris, S. (1999) ‘The instrumental side of corporal punishment: Parents’ reported practices and outcomes’, Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 61, pp. 908-19.
Kanoy, K., Ulku-Steiner, B., Cox, M. And Burchinal, M. (2003) ‘Marital relationship and individual psychological characteristics that predict physical punishment of children’, Journal of Family Psychology, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 20-28.
Kendler, K.S. (1996) ‘Parenting: A Genetic-Epidemiologic Perspective’, American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 153, pp. 11-20.
Kochanska, G. And Thompson, R.A. (1997) ‘The emergence and development of conscience in toddlerhood and early childhood’. In: J.E. Grusec and L. Kuczynski (eds.), Parenting and Children’s Internalization of Values: A Handbook of Contemporary Theory. New York: Wiley, pp. 53-77.
Maccoby, E.E. And Martin, J.A. (1983) ‘Socialization in the context of the family: Parent — child interaction’. In: P.H. Mussen (Series Ed.) and E.M. Hetherington (Volume Ed.), Handbook of Child Psychology. Volume 4: Socialization, personality and social development (4th edition). New York: Wiley, pp. 1-101.
MacKinnon, C.E., Lewis, C., Lamb, C.E., Arbuckle. B., Baradaran, L.P. And Volling, B.L. (1992) ‘The relationship between biased maternal and filial attributions and the aggressiveness of their interactions’, Developmental Psychopathology, Vol. 4, pp. 403-15.
Miller, S.A. (1995) ‘Parents’ attributions for their children’s behaviour’, Child Development, Vol. 66, pp. 1557-84.
Murphy-Cowan, T. And Stringer, M. (1999) ‘Physical Punishment and the Parenting Cycle: A Survey of Northern Irish Parents’, Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 9, pp. 61-71.
Nobes, G. And Smith, M. (2002) ‘Family structure and the physical punishment of children’, Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 349-73.
Nobes, G., Smith, M., Upton, P. And Heverin, A. (1999) ‘Physical punishment by mothers and fathers in British homes’, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 14, No. 8, pp. 887-902.
Pinderhughes, E., Dodge, K., Bates, J., Pettit, G. And Zelli, A. (2000) ‘Discipline Responses: Influences of parents’ socio-economic status, ethnicity, beliefs about parenting, stress and cognitive-emotional processes’, Journal of Family Psychology, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 380-400.
Ritchie, J. (2002) ‘Parents: Discipline, punishment and child abuse. A four-decade study of child-rearing attitudes and practices’, The New Zealand Psychological Society Bulletin, Vol. 100, pp. 30-33.
Simons, R.L., Whitbeck, L.B., Conger, R.D. And Chyi-In, W. (1991) ‘Intergenerational transmission of harsh parenting’, Developmental Psychology, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 159-71.
Smith, A.B., Gollop, M., Taylor, N.J. And Marshall, K. (2005) The Discipline and Guidance of Children: A Summary of Research. Dunedin and Wellington, NZ: Children’s Issues Centre and Office of the Children’s Commissioner.
Smith, J.R. And Brooks-Gunn, J. (1997) ‘Correlates and consequences of harsh discipline for young children’, Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Vol. 151, No. 8, pp. 777-86.
Socolar, R.R.S., Winsor, J., Hunter, W.M., Catellier, D. And Kotch, J.B. (1999) ‘Maternal disciplinary practices in an at-risk population’, Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Vol. 153, No. 9, pp. 927-34.
Vasta, R. (1982) ‘Physical Child Abuse: A Dual Component Analysis’, Developmental Review, Vol. 2, pp. 125-49.
Wilson, C.M., Wilson, L.C. And Fox, C.A. (2002) ‘Structural and personal contexts of discipline orientations of Guyanese parents: Theoretic and empirical considerations’, Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 33, pp. 1-13.
Wissow, L.S. (2001) ‘Ethnicity, income and parenting contexts of physical punishment in a national sample of families with young children’, Child Maltreatment, Vol. 6, pp. 118-29.
Woodward, L.J. And Fergusson, D.M. (2002) ‘Parent, child and contextual predictors of childhood physical punishment’, Infant and Child Development, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 213-36.
Wolfner, G.D. And Gelles, R.J. (1993) ‘A Profile of Violence towards Children: A National Study’, Child Abuse and Neglect, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 197-212.
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more