Victims of Intimate Violence: Laci Peterson and Minh Dang


Victims of Intimate Violence: Laci Peterson and Minh Dang

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Osteoarthritis refers to the form of arthritis affecting the joints of individuals, especially middle age and elderly members of the society (Walker, 2011). Osteoarthritis is known as ‘OA’ or wear and tear of the joints. Osteoarthritis is a joint disease or pathology affecting the entire joints, ligaments, linings of the joints, cartilage, and bones of the affected persons within the society. According to the survey of the medical conditions of the United States, approximately 27 million citizens are living with Osteoarthritis. This is the most common aspect or form of the joint diseases. It is one of the leading causes of disabilities in relation to the older people within the society.

The occurrence of the aspect of Osteoarthritis is diagnosed when the cartilage of the joints breaks down due to factors such as mechanical stress and biomedical alterations. These failures results in the lack of performance of the underneath bone thus the essence wear and tear of the joints. Researches also indicate that Osteoarthritis has the ability to supplement other types of joint diseases such as gout and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis is mostly evident in the commonly applicable joints, in the execution of daily activities such as hands, spine, hips, and knees.

In most cases, it is difficult to diagnose the main cause of Osteoarthritis. This is because it is commonly constitute as a normal concept of aging. The disease is mainly related to the aspect of aging thus consequences of old age among the societal members. The symptoms of the disease are commonly evident in the middle age. Another prominent feature is the essence of its symptoms to almost everyone above the age of 70 within the society. Prior to the age of 55, Osteoarthritis occurs equally in both male and female species. Some of the factors contributing to the development of the disease among the individuals include

Inheritance or family medical history

Obesity is a contributing factor especially at locations such as hips, knees, and ankle

Fractures or relevant injuries to the joints

Job requirements such as squatting, lifting, kenneling, and climbing of stairs

Involvement in activities with direct impact on the joints such as football

Bleeding disorders such as hemophilia

Disorders blocking the supply of blood near the joints

Other relevant forms of arthritis such as gout, rheumatoid, and pseudo-gout arthritis

The most common symptoms in relation to the case of Osteoarthritis include stiffness and pain in the joints. The pain is extreme following the aspect of an exercise or pressure on the area of the joint. The joints become stiffer and harder to move with subject to time. In some cases, it is also possible for suffering individuals to notice rubbing, gating, and crackling sounds in the context of the movement of the joints. There is severe pain in the morning lasting for at least half an hour. In case of increase in the levels of activities during the day, the pain and stiffness might increase. Physical examination of the joints has the ability to show the crackling or grating effect known as the crepitation. There is also the aspect of swelling of the joints thus enlargement if the bones that in normal cases. There is the aspect of tenderness following the pressing of the joints thus the essence of limited motion range (Mann, 2012).

In the diagnosis of osteoarthritis, medical practitioners adopt and implement various methods for effectiveness and efficiency. Some of the methods for evaluation, detection, or diagnosis of the case of osteoarthritis include x-rays, lab tests, physical examination, and medical history. In the application of x-ray machines, medical practitioners monitor the affected joints for the cases of damage or tear. Lab tests are also run for the determination of the essence of osteoarthritis in relation to the examination of the affected joints. This indicates affected individuals participate in the lab test, in case of detection of stiffness or pain in the context of the joints thus limiting their motion range. Affected individuals also undergo a physical examination for the medical practitioners to determine the state of the joints and the relevant linings and cartilages for any damage or tear (Tan & Conaghan, 2012).

There is no proven method in relation to the treatment of osteoarthritis operating towards reversing the damage to the joint. The main purpose of the treatment approach is to enhance the improvement of the function of the affected joints and minimize the pain. Some of the management processes and methods for the treatment of osteoarthritis include physical measures, drug therapy, and surgery. Physical measures or management of osteoarthritis focuses on the minimization of the weight (Hunter, 2009). Weight loss and exercise activities are essential in the management of osteoarthritis. This is because excess weight contributes to immense pressure on the joints (Rochmond et al., 2009). Physical measures enable suffering individuals to strengthen their muscles while decrease the pain and stiffness thus reducing disability chances in relation to osteoarthritis. Physical measures focus on the incorporation of the walking cane and braces for the execution of daily activities. Activities such as massage and chiropractic are also essential in the management of the case of osteoarthritis thus reducing pain affecting the elderly in the society. Drug therapy relates to the incorporation topical, oral, and injections on relation to the management of pain and stiffness of the joints. Affected individuals are advised to apply topical drugs directly on the impacted areas or joints. Such topical drugs include lidocaine and capsaicin cream. Oral pain relievers are applicable as first treatments thus effective in the minimization pain and swelling. Surgical treatment is also an option for the management of severe cases of osteoarthritis. This relates to the application of surgical management measures in case of severe damage to the joints, major loss of function, and failure of drug and physical therapy to achieve the objective of minimizing pain and stiffness.

Osteoarthritis contributes to the impairment of several needs of Virginia Henderson. One of the essential impairments with reference to the needs of Virginia Henderson is the inability to move and maintain desirable postures (Koutoukidis et al., 2013). Another aspect of impairment is the lack of quality sleep and rest needs because of severe pain and stiffness of the joints. Individuals also lack the ability to play or participate in numerous recreational activities (Daniels, 2004). The joint disease also affects the eating habits of the diagnosed individuals thus impairing adequate eating and drinking needs. In order to enhance the management of the condition, it is essential for the adoption of various interventions such as drug therapy for minimization of the pain and physical exercise for elimination of stiffness of the joints. Other interventions include facilitation of the motion processes and provision of adequate water and food for management of the course (Stukstette, et al., 2012).


Osteoarthritis is a disease affecting the joints thus causing severe pain and stiffness contributing to the limitation of the motion range of the diagnosed individuals. It is mainly associated with old age within the society thus affecting the joints, linings, and cartilages causing much pain and lack of effective movement by the affected individual. There are no known factors, apart from old age, contributing to the development of the disease of the joints. This leads to the examination of several factors as contributors to the development of the disease of the joints. Some of the factors include Inheritance or family medical history, obesity, fractures or relevant injuries to the joints, job requirements such as squatting, lifting, kenneling, and climbing of stairs.

Others include activities with direct impact on the joints such as football, bleeding disorders such as hemophilia, disorders blocking the supply of blood near the joints, and relevant forms of arthritis such as gout, rheumatoid, and pseudo-gout arthritis. Some of the symptoms of the disease include severe joint pains, swelling of the affected areas, limitation of the motion range, stiffness joints, and damaged cartilage. In diagnosing the disease, medical practitioners apply methods such as physical examination, x-ray, lab tests, and medical history. Following the diagnosis process, it is essential to adopt and implement effective methods for the management of the disease. This relates to incorporation of drug therapy, surgical measures, and physical mechanisms in the minimization of the conditions of the disease. These methods are essential in the minimization of pain and stiffness of the joints thus enhancing the mobility of the affected individuals.


Hunter DJ, Lo GH. (2009). The management of osteoarthritis: an overview and call to appropriate conservative treatment. Med Clin North Am.;93:127-43, xi.

Richmond J, Hunter D, Irrgang J, et al. (2009). Treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee

(nonarthroplasty). J Am Acad Orthop Surg.;17:591-600.

Walker, J. (2011). Management of Osteoarthritis. Nursing Older People, 23(9), 14-19.

Stukstette, et al., (2012). A multidisciplinary and multidimensional intervention for patients with hand osteoarthritis. Clinical Rehabilitation, 26(2), 99-110.


Mann, C. (2012). Recognising and meeting the needs of people with osteoarthritis. Primary Health Care, 22(7), 32-39.

Tan, Y., & Conaghan, P.G. (2012). Insights into osteoarthritis from MRI. International

Journal Of Rheumatic Diseases, 15(1), 1-7. doi:10.1111/j.1756-185X.2011.01677.x

Koutoukidis, G., Stainton, K., Hughson, J., & Tabbner, A.R. (2013). Tabbner’s nursing care:

Theory and practice. Chatswood, N.S.W: Churchill Livingstone.

Daniels, R. (2004). Nursing fundamentals: Caring & clinical decision making. Australia: Delmar


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