Views held by Japanese on corpses discussion

aging and death but with an Asia inclination. We discuss the concept within a Japanese context. We start with a general view of the concept across the globe and then later on present our investigation and findings regarding the concept in the Japanese view. We look at the situation of the elders in ancient Japan and then compare it with the modern time rituals and myths. We then present a holistic view of how the situation is in the contemporary society.

Just like any other country, the Japanese had their views on death both in ancient times and modern times. In early Japanese times the subject or topic of death was considered a taboo and death was considered filthy. Beliefs were held by the ancients that medicine could cure any problem one had and it is only death that they found mysterious and unexplainable. The views on death held traditionally and those held presently have varied a little considering that Japan is no longer a purely Buddhist state like it was several decades back. Other religions like Christianity and Hinduism are now practiced by some Japanese therefore their long held traditions have had to change. These beliefs were considered very important and have been passed on and on by the elderly in the society. In contemporary times since death was impure and filthy. The Japanese had rituals like encoffinment. The practice of encoffinment was necessary to relieve the family of their grief and also to clean the dead person’s impurity.

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Contemporary Japanese carried out the following rites

Views held by Japanese on corpses

Continuation of life and death

Literature review


Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2007).The Definition of Death


Tomomatsu, Entai. (1939). The Human Being and Death (in Japanese). Tokyo: Kaiseisha.


The death phenomenon is one that has been the source of much controversy, fear and debate. It is important to first of all understand why death has for a long time captured the thought and mind of the human being since time immemorial. Death is defined by the Stanford Encyclopadia of Philosophy as “as the irreversible cessation of organismic functioning”(SEP,2007).It can also be defined as the irreversible loss of personhood (SEP,2007).The subject of death has been viewed with a lot of fear in the Western culture. This can be attributed to the fact that the Western culture is dominated with mechanistic view of the human nature. Westerners have therefore become increasingly fascinated by their own machines and they have no other way of viewing themselves. The materialist-mechanist view does have a very profound perspective of life. Its view is a complex one but wonderful in its perception. The only better way of coming close to an understanding of the concept of aging and death is via a very strong spiritual backdrop. Buddhism for example starts with a rather brutal but honest perspective of life.Buddha said that “Birth is suffering, sickness is suffering, old-age and deaths are suffering.” It is therefore worth noting that all these are part and parcel of the life of every human being in this world.

The Japanese view of death and old age is a very unique one. This is because Japan has throughout the centuries proven justifiably that it has the strongest attitudes towards age and death (Becker, 2009).This is as opposed to the popular ” youth” view of the West. The Japanese society has through time looked at the state of being elderly with so much optimism and joy. They also value other aspects of their culture such as:

Ceremonies of Tea




And such like arts as the true “Paths” through which the cultured and mature population finds their expression. Therefore to the Japanese community, individuals do become more valuable as they age as opposed to the Western perspective that look at the elderly as some sort of a burden.The Japanese society is in fact praised for its ideas that encourage reciprocal obligation as well as interdependence. These calmly and plainly dictate that the elderly be well cared for on the ground of their previous contribution to the society. The Japanese society has been noted to be living in families that are three-generational in length and arrangement. They have also been noted to honor their ancestors at their respective family altars and they have been noted to be having a culture of consciousness and continuity with a strong link to the past and great gratitude to their forefathers.

Their fearlessness towards death is evident from various historical accounts and mythologies with accounts of countless suicides of warriors and kamikaze pilots. The twentieth century accounts regarding literati has also dumbfounded the Western world. This is with a clear message that the classical Japanese civilization revered honor over life.

Overview of the current Japanese population

The Japanese society has the highest longevity in the whole world at present. Their life expectancies of 79 for men and 86 for women are noted as the best in the world (Japan National Institute, 2005). A projection has shown that by 2040, a single generation of Japanese that exists today will have 33% of its members being over the age of 65 (Robine and Saito, 2003).

Several Japanese in the present setting do have a feeling that the various modern biomedical as well as technological marvels regarding the enhancement of human longevity and the source of death itself are changing a view of the common understanding of the situation that has historically been regarded as a simple and yet natural event and process of dying (Kimura, 1996). The true meaning of death and the process of dying is constantly changing as well as the metrics used in the determination of death itself. These include the cessation of heartbeat as well as respiration.

It should be noted that an individual’s death should be regarded as a personal affair and therefore must be deemed private and familial in the social context. This has indeed been the situation in the Japanese culture and society for a long period of time (Kimura, 1996).The Japanese understanding in terms of their traditional and social-cultural perspective regarding the understanding of life of a human is positive. It however admits that death is a natural process which marks the end of life. This same idea is expressed in various phrases contained in the Zen-Buddhist scriptures. Words like “accept death as it is” as well as “life-death as one phenomenon” are just an illustration of how death has been seamlessly integrated into the common understanding of the human life as illustrated by Tomomatsu (1939).

Just like any other country, the Japanese had their views on death both in ancient times and modern times. In early Japanese times the subject or topic of death was considered a taboo and death was considered filthy. Beliefs were held by the ancients that medicine could cure any problem one had and it is only death that they found mysterious and unexplainable. The views on death held traditionally and those held presently have varied a little considering that Japan is no longer a purely Buddhist state like it was several decades back. Other religions like Christianity and Hinduism are now practiced by some Japanese therefore their long held traditions have had to change. These beliefs were considered very important and have been passed on and on by the elderly in the society. In contemporary times since death was impure and filthy. The Japanese had rituals like encoffinment. The practice of encoffinment was necessary to relieve the family of their grief and also to clean the dead person’s impurity.

Contemporary Japanese carried out the following rites

The rite of Nokan or the encoffinment where the corpse was placed in a casket during the funeral. Traditionally, the ceremony was to relieve the family of their grief by cleansing the dead of all his worldly suffering, while hoping they would have a better life in the afterlife. The specialist handled all the necessary requirements for ease of passage into the afterlife.

In early times there were two main traditions practiced Shinto and Buddhist traditions. According to Shinto traditions, the dead as well as the family unit from which he/she came from were considered to be unclean and impure; therefore the corpse had to be washed for purification.

Traditional Japanese believed that the dead person’s soul remained impure for some period following death before purification through memorials done by the relatives of the dead; thereafter the soul was deindividuated into an ancestor god or goddess. Traditional Japanese opinion that dead people are impure is based on the Kojiki myth, where maggots came out of the rotting body of a god. Traditionally burial gowns were also considered garments for travelling that prepared the dead when travelling to the other world.

The encoffinment rite was done by the family members as death was unclean. In modern times, in keeping with this rite, family members wipe the corpse clean with a cotton cloth dipped in alcohol with the assistance funeral specialists.

Traditionally Japanese funerals were to serve as prayers for the deceased person’s soul while also serving as the family’s time for public mourning as it was meant to keep their loved one in their memories.

Typically a Japanese funeral follows the sequence: when someone dies, they are placed to rest in their homes. The corpse was placed with the head pointing the North, copying the deathbed of Gautama, and the head of the bed is well decorated. Then the previously mentioned encoffinment process. The first night after one’s death is called the Tsuya; and it is for close family and friends to remember their beloved. In the morning, a cleansing meal is served called Okiyome. The funeral is thereafter carried out where the Jukai rite also known as receipt of commandments gives the dead an opportunity to receive the Buddhist commandments, automatically making the dead a disciple of the Buddha, and the dead person is accepted into Buddha hood.

After all this, the deceased embarks on the journey to the other world as the coffin is carried out of the house and burnt in a crematorium to ashes.

Presently about 99% Japanese are cremated while only about 1% are interred. These changes in preference on the method of sending off the dead have been brought about by the Country’s main religion, changes in dwelling environments and changes in technologies. During the high-growth era of the 1970s, cremation became popular outside of metropolitan areas and crematoriums were built in several places as a matter of national requirement.

Views held by Japanese on corpses

Generally the elderly Japanese do not perceive the body and soul as a duality, which is flesh and spirit. The corpse is considered a very important part and if funeral rites are not carried out, the deceased’s soul will not be mourned. It is very important that the corpse is attended to and the death is mourned by as many people as possible. Additionally the corpse must be well taken care of until all rites have been carried out. The body is not just considered a vehicle or an object or a shell for the soul but it is considered an entity with a will, hopes and rights therefore the family has a responsibility to care for them, respect them and accord them a befitting farewell..

Continuation of life and death

The Japanese considered death a passageway leading to the continuation of death and life. The Japanese held contradicting ideas concerning the dead. Even though they wish for and hope that the dead resurrect, they live in fear of the spirit and the possible return of the dead founded on the Shintoist principle of impurity, as explained earlier on in the funeral rites. They believe impurity is transmissible and transferrable and that, a house that experienced a death and even those involved in handling the corpse are also impure. Therefore Japanese funerals have a combination of rites to reaffirming death, protect the dead, and prevent bad luck and curses and prevent the dead from resurrecting. Some practices invoke the spirit of the dead from having a feeling of longing; which include Ichizen-meshi a single bowl of rice given to the dead and Matsugo-no-mizu which is water given to the dead at the time of death. There are other contrasting customs like the Sakasa-buton or upside-down futon, whereby the dead persons blanket is placed facing upside-down, and the Sakasa-byobu or upside-down folding of the dead one’s screen, where a folding screen is placed upside-down on top of the head of the deceased’s bed, and Sakasa-mizu or upside-down water, where the water for cleaning the corpse is prepared by adding hot water into cold water rather than pouring cold water into hot water as normal. All this is done with the primary aim of separating the scary situation of death from people’s day-to-day lives and also to prevent pulling others in to death.

Other customs were also used traditionally to make it impossible for the departed soul to remain in this life or to make an attempt to return to this life. They included making burial gowns without closed stitches or backstitches, and the practice of turning the coffin three times when taking it out of the house which was done in order to confuse the deceased preventing them from ever coming back home. Similarly the deceased’s bowl of rice is shattered, and the deceased exits the house through an exit that is not the front door. Throwing of salt is also another practice aimed to remove the uncleanness and impurity brought about by the death. Up to now, there is the Kichu custom a 49-day mourning and grieving period, during which the family does not attend any festivities. During this period, since the family was made unclean by the death it is shunned and avoided. There is also Mochu which is a one-year period. A time when the family mourns the death of their member and remembers the departed.

In conclusion we have discussed in this assignment how traditional Japanese viewed death their traditions and their myths concerning death and all the elaborate preparations they carried out when sending off their dead relatives. Why and how all the rites were practiced. How the deceased’s family had a responsibility to give the dead a befitting burial and respect them because it was assumed that the dead retained their individuality as they had it before their deaths. The idea and belief that death is a station led to a continuation and made it possible for communication between the old and the dead.

Literature review

Extant literature has been devoted to the theme of old age and death in the Japanese society. This is due to the mystery and wonder that has always dogged aging and death. This is because traditionally the Japanese have treated old age and death as normal processes of life that one must accept, embrace and not to rebel against.

Kimura (1996) discussed the aspects of death and dying in Japan with a focus on the contemporary society. He notes that the contemporary Japanese society has been affected with modernisms and its technological marvels to the point that they no longer hold the same view and value regarding death. This is due to the ultramodern hospital care facilities and the current biomedical technologies. He points out that the Japanese understanding in terms of their traditional and social-cultural perspective regarding the understanding of life of a human is positive. He points out that the ancient Japanese culture admitted that death is a natural process which marks the end of life. This same idea is expressed in various phrases contained in the Zen-Buddhist scriptures. Words like “accept death as it is” as well as “life-death as one phenomenon” are just an illustration of how death has been seamlessly integrated into the common understanding of the human life as illustrated by Tomomatsu (1939).

The elder Japanese population does not in any way aspire to remain active as does their counterparts from the West. Matsubayashi (2006) in his extensive survey dubbed “successful aging,” discovered that the Japanese elderly prefer to live a longer life while having a fair health. This is in sharp contracts with the Western elderly population who prioritize in staying involved in the process of life while being independent and coping with their own problems. His personal finding were therefore supported that postulated that in both cultures persons with little personal achievement goes through aging more peacefully as opposed to the ones who have high ideals. This he attributes to their frustration caused by their gradual reduction in the level of influence, mental agility and mobility.

Lester (1993) found out that Japanese who are living in households that are three-generational do have a longer life spans as opposed to the ones living in nuclear families. He however points out that the very idea of three generational households is quickly becoming extinct. He attributes this to the movement of young people to go and work on various farms that are in their countryside and also the soaring of price of land within their reach making it extremely expensive to house a three generational family under a single roof. This therefore points out to the role of urbanization and nuclearization in the reduction of the elderly age of Japanese elderly population.

Noda (1991) points out to the fact that elder Japanese population do prefer to be hospitalized since they view it as being honorable as opposed to applying for services provided by the community welfare.

In the context of the problem faced by Japan regarding its old population, Wolf (1985) points out to the fact that indeed Japan has a big problem in adjusting to the demands of its old population. The leading cause of death for the elderly in Japan is Pneumonia. This is a true indicator that a large number of them lack the basic care needed by the elderly population.

Suicide among the elderly

Tatai (1991) points out to the fact that incapacitation and physical disease are amongst the main causes of suicide amongst the Japanese society. This is however very evident and common place amongst the rural families where the children have left and gone to the cities in search of employment as indicated by Fuse (1980) and Lester (1993). The main reason why the elderly resort to suicide in the contemporary society is because of a feeling of alienation and being unable to cope with the rapidly changing (dynamic) times. This leaves them no choice but to end their lives through suicide as pointed out by Travis (1990).

In terms of gender, the males have been recorded to commit more suicides than the females,.This is true for all age brackets. There has been an unprecedented increase in the number of “unintentional drownings” amongst the elderly female population of age group above 55. This points out to the notion that most of the female suicides are covered up as being “unintentional drownings,.” This has been suggested by Rockett (1993) as an attempt by the family of the suicide victim to save face.

Becker (2009) points out that the average national suicide rate in Japan is 24 suicides for every 10,000 individuals every year. The over 85-year bracket however has a double rate of between 47 and 48 for every 10,000.It is worth noting that the percentage could be higher as this is just the reported suicide only (Takahashi,1998).


Ideal place of death

The Japanese society has for a long time favored some special places for their interment. The Japanese society is known to have a special social centrality in regards to interdependence as well as group work in the process of decision making. This extends even to the termination of one’s care and even the very definition of death. The West on the other hand the west have had a different opinion regarding aspects of an individual’s life such as organ donation and termination of care.

In Japan however, the living wills are usually never respected by the healthcare provider (doctors).This is because the patient’s family always take dominance in these kinds of matters. This means that a patient’s wish for their organs to be donated can easily be overruled and opposed by their family. This is with the hope and fear that the patient may have a shorter life or a badly disfigured corpse. This debate therefore renders the debate about being brain dead a totally new perspective.

The question about what make a person really dead is one that has dominated the Japanese context of death. So when a person is declared dead?

The traditional notion of death is that a person is declared dead when their heart stops beating. The Japanese society then performs a series of ceremonies and rituals.The name of the dead person is called from the roof tops. Their favorite meal is prepared and then placed right next to the body. There is also the chanting of Suntra and the burning of fragrant incemse.The body ids then washed, bathed and even clothed. This was a very revered ceremony and various families who had wealth and the time would leave the body without cremation for several days. This is the period that they referred to as mogari.

In this period, the body was;




Clothed and Rested

It is indeed a wonder that some of the dead revived during this period. The Japanese answer as to when a person ceases to be a person is that the individual remains being a person up to and until the time of their cremation or burial and their ashes and have been installed in their family crypt or altar. According to them, a person continues being a person as long as their body is still visible. This is because of the fact that being a person in the Japanese context does not demand making of individual decisions and influencing events actively but it means being in a set of human relationships that are highly connected within the familial and social circle. This means that even when one is in the hospital in an unconscious state, they are still regarded by their family members as part of their group.

The time of the funeral marks the center and focus of the dead person in the larger network that connects all the individuals who are attending the ceremony. All the decisions made there are for the benefits of the dead Japanese and their voice is still heard in death. They therefore continue to respect the decision of their dead. It is therefore important to remember that a Japanese continues to be person even when they are brain-dead, comatose or declared medically “dead.” Our focus in this paper is not to debate the basis of truth of this belief. What we out to expose is just the cultural aspect and viewpoint of the Japanese regarding their dead.

The Japanese have a liking for a premium place of death.The old used to travel or be taken to the mountain in order to die there. The contemporary elderly Japanese prefer dying at home as opposed to the hospital.A quality of death survey (qod ) carried out at the Kyoto University revealed that most Japanese prefer dying at their homes while surrounded by their relatives and they wish to do so while watching the sky, the horizon and trees. This revealed that they prefer dying in a more natural setting and while laid on tatami mats as opposed to their Western counterparts (Becker,1997)


A look at the Asian and Japanese culture reveals that they are a very conservative lot. Most aspects of the ancient Japanese culture and religion have continued to persist with time and across generations. Their culture and myths that surround aging and death too have continued to stand the test of time. Indeed it is quite amazing the level of understanding that the Japanese have when it comes to embracing death and old age. This is of course as opposed to the Western culture which shuns old age and tries to maintain a younger look with a very sad view of death as an end to their lives. It is therefore quite amazing that the Japanese society is brave one that faces death with so much joy and content just like their warrior ancestors did with great honor.


Kimura, R (1996).Death and dying in Japan. “Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal,” Vol. 6, No.

4,The Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 374-378.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2007).The Definition of Death

Tomomatsu, Entai. (1939). The Human Being and Death (in Japanese). Tokyo: Kaiseisha.

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